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Earth's Earliest Ages
See: A A Biblical Structure of HistoryBiblical
Structure  of  History
See Also
The Genesis Prologue
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Beware of the abuse of Holy Scripture by the Creation Science organisation of the US in using Bible genealogy as a chronology for it deliberately does NOT include all generations. See –
Abraham's Genealogy
[for reaction to error
can produce error!]
Age of the Universe
THE BIBLE does not give the age of our universe or provide the necessary data for us to calculate it.
It was already there – as God's supernatural creation out of nothing!
But in
REMEMBER:
GOD
does NOT need time,
any time, to create –

not 6 trillion years or
6 thousand, or 6 seconds!
Genesis 1:2, the Bible does describe this planet, BEFORE God's creative action of the First Day of Genesis One, as –
"Now the earth/land was
formless and empty,
darkness was over the surface of the deep,
 and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters."
 
A better acquaintance
with the Bible
would save a lot of
embarrassment
or confusion
in this regard.
The words "deep" (תהום/tehôm) and the "waters" (מים/mayim) are parallel expressions for the same world-ocean of this dark water-covered earth.
The Six Days
which now follow describe in summary
the giving of structure or – form to this "formless";   and then the giving of content or – filling to this "empty".
To do
See:
Genesis Text
Revisited
justice to the Bible, it is important to understand that the All Mighty, the Infinite One, did not need any time period to create. The picture therefore given in Scripture is of God stooping down from His infinity to create in six separate acts, followed by a day of rest, to thereby model for humanity the designed time-pattern for future human life. So, the sabbath day was therefore not for religious observance but set as a day of rest.
God presents Himself
as human role-model

Error 1:
Unfortunately, some Bible 'scholars' have misread/misinterpreted this second verse to mean that God's Six Days of forming/structuring and filling planet earth and its environment were simply His act of bringing order to an already existing 'chaotic universe' (to support their gap-theory of an earlier creation that fell), as though the Hebrew word ארץ / 'erets (earth/land) could somehow mean 'universe', which it certainly does not.
Chaos theory False!
 
The Bible does not teach order-out-of-chaos in the origin of our universe!
This twisting of Holy Scripture is a result of trying to find common ground between the Bible and pagan cosmologies (universe-origin theories/myths) of the Ancient Near East.
Error 2:
Neither do the words 'formless' and 'empty' (the alliterative nouns תּהוּ/tohu and בּהוּ/bohu) describe the aftermath of a previous creation destroyed by God in judgment which now requires a second creation-attempt by the Almighty.

Gap theory False!
For the
word translated 'was' (היה hâyâh) cannot be translated 'became', as some allege (in an attempt to explain the existence of fossils), for grammatically, the word hâyâh does not denote a change of status, as if caused by some cataclysm!
This verse simply describes the condition of our planet before the Six Days special creation of our earth's life-system.
 

The word
It does not denote the 'chariot of God'/'throne of glory' suspended over the waters (Rabbi Rashi); nor that the Spirit of God is God's 'servant' (Rabbi Ibn Ezra).
translated as 'hovering' (רָחַף râchaph 'flutter' / 'move' / 'shake'), concerning the mode/behaviour of the Spirit of God, carries the idea of –
the wings of a hovering hawk poised to drop upon it's prey, in anticipation of the action to come.
This description is a picture of the Spirit of God 'anointing' this unique planet earth – in vibrant anticipation of the imminent words of God about to be spoken – words which would bring light, form, and life to this planet by the power of His Spirit in the coming Days One to Six which follow in the preparation of the human environment.
The same word is
translated elsewhere as:
'shake' Jer.23:9;
'flutter' Deut.32:11.
Thus:
this Genesis text describes the anticipatory state/attitude of the Spirit of God, prior to the first day of the Six Days, in His on-site presence over an already-existing dark water-covered earth.
See:
Genesis Text
 Restructured 


But some,
in an effort to avoid understanding the Six Days as the special preparation of our planet, have regarded the first verse of our Bible as describing nothing, but as simply a 'title' to all that follows in the Six Days. This does not fit the structure of the holy text as noted above.
So,
this anticipatory behaviour of God's Spirit confirms that we should not understand the earlier phrase – "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" – as being inclusive of the Seven Days that follow in which the Spirit will implement God's declarations. This simple phrase of the first verse ascribes existence of all things to God alone, including the dark water-covered earth awaiting its unique preparation for human history.
Yet,
some sincere souls have even argued for a Divine six-solar-days creation (144-hour, or 8640-minutes, or 518400-seconds) of all that exists everywhere.
Why did God stretch
creation over 6-days?
 
Of course God could do it! He is infinite in all respects! He could do it in all in a fraction of one second.
He does not need time, any time, for He is Infinite and Eternal, and He created time and space.
But
the description detail given by Him in Genesis has special meaning for us.
 
 
Therefore, to use the Bible's statements about 'six days' in order to contradict the so-called 'big bang' (singularity) theory of cosmic origin, as these persons ignorantly do, is to miss the whole point of the Bible's summary of these Six Days.
They are simply a description of God's unique and awesomely wonderful preparation of the human environment, in which God's own behaviour of resting on the Seventh Day is portrayed as the role-model for human behaviour.
God is presented
as our role-model.
Exodus 20:8-11.
The focus of this creation passage is upon the design of humanity in God's 'image', for humanity to therefore represent the character of His rule, and His dominion over all.
The representative nature of the design of humanity necessarily involves His authority, and therefore "dominion" is given and for no other reason.
The New Testament focus on 'Kingdom/Rule of God' needs to be understood against this given background of 'dominion' over all on God's behalf mandated to all humanity.
Translators please note!
This Chapter One semantic context (God as role-model), which follows from the Genesis 1:2 verse, should help translators understand why the phrase 'Spirit of God' (רוח אלהים) hovering over a dark water-covered earth should not be translated as 'the wind of God' or 'a mighty storm' (as if it was part of an implicit relative clause) as some have very unwisely done.
 
So it may be said that it knew you were coming –
"The atomic weak force (operating in the nucleus of the atom) is so finely tuned that an alteration of even 1 part out of 10100 would have rendered the universe lifeless. Oxford physicist Roger Penrose estimated that the initial entropy condition had to be fine-tuned to 1 part out of 1010^123 ľ a truly incomprehensible number, dwarfing even the sum of all sub atomic particles in the entire known universe. Keep in mind that these are just two examples, to calculate the actual odds of the fine-tuning one would have to multiply all the probabilities together, so that if this figure could be finally expressed its meaning and immensity would be lost on our finite minds.
Thus, for all practical purposes, chance as an explanation for the fine-tuning is excluded."
Quoted from 'The Goldilocks Universe Part 4'.
 
But our universe
is not in itself a naturally human-friendly place. It is a very dangerous place, and the uniquely protected environment of our planet was therefore a necessary part of earth's purpose as the moral seed-plot for the ultimate existential purpose of everything that exists everywhere. . .
See:
The Genesis Prologue
        Now regarding – the Beginning of this Beginning:
 
Current scientific theory, based on observed phenomena, estimates the time since that first creative moment (the Singularity or 'Big Bang') as at about 13.7 billion years, based essentially on the apparent size of the universe and the speed of its expansion. (This Hubble Time has been adjusted as new evidence for the amount of exotic matter in the universe has become better understood).
 
But

Since the beginning
the speed of light
has apparently slowed
to its present speed
it should be noted that this 'Hubble Time' assumes a constant of both the speed of light and the strength of certain sub-atomic forces as represented in the so-called alpha constant. (Alpha is composed of 2 * phi * e² / h * c, where e is the charge of an electron, h is Planck's constant and c is the speed of light).
See:
Dr Wiens on Earth-Age
Recent observations of quasar light however (by astronomer Webb et al), have brought this into serious question (by physicists Banks, Dine, and Douglas). The implications of which may be, among other, that light has significantly slowed down during the expansion of the universe to the present. (See also work by Giovanni Amelino-Camelia of La Sapienza University, Rome, João Magueijo of Imperial College, London, and Lee Smolin of Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Canada, on 'Double Special Relativity' theories). This could eventually result in a significant shortening of the universe's estimated 13 billion year age (as well as the size of our universe).
Aversion among some scientists to the idea of a Creator, when objective research points to that conclusion, has been shown by Dr Robert Jastrow, a self-confessed agnostic, to be a religious prejudice (God and the Astronomers 1978, WW Norton & Company, New York.
That the Universe had a beginning, means – it had a Beginner, a Creator!
This
logical conclusion from the discovery of the Singularity or 'Big Bang' has troubled many eminent scientists, and so various attempts have been made to avoid this conclusion. These attempts, which have each been refuted by subsequent discoveries, are listed.
Objection-to-God Hypotheses
 
Scientific Refutations
Steady State Universe  1
Continual creation of matter out of nothing occurs as an ongoing natural process. This means that matter (the galaxies) would appear as all ages from young to old in an infinitely old universe.
  The paradox of the dark night sky makes an infinitely old universe an impossibility for, even if interstellar dust clouds did absorb most light, this also would accumulate and then radiate.
  Astronomer Donald Hamilton showed (in 1985) that all galaxies in the Universe were formed at about the same time, contradicting this 'continual creation' theory.
Infinitely Oscillating Universe  2
That the Universe alternates for infinite time between phases of expansion and contraction. Gravity stops the expansion and starts a phase of contraction. An unknown mechanism bounces the Universe from contraction into a new expansion, and so on...
 
  Physicists, Igor Novikov and Yacob Zel'dovich showed (in 1973) by the geometry of collapsing structures that a bouncing Universe was impossible. Astrophysicists, Alan Guth, Marc Sher, and Sidney Bludman demonstrated (in 1983 and 1984) that even if the Universe contained enough mass for gravity to reverse its expansion it would come to an end with a thud instead of a bounce. Infinite cycles are not possible!
Quantum Gravity Era  3
That before the Universe was 10-43 seconds old, when the force of gravity was equal to the force that holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom, gravity may have been modified by quantum mechanical effects that allowed a limited number of 'bounces' or oscillations (from Big Bang to Big Bang).
 
  Russian physicist, Andre Linde, demonstrated (in 1991) that a universe with the characteristics of ours could not have arisen from a bounce in a 'quantum gravity era'. ("Self-Reproducing Universe" lecture given at the Centennial Symposium on Large Scale Structure, California Institute of Technology).
See:
Steenberg Intelligent
Design Controversy
A point of interest: 
Our local group of galaxies, of which we are a part, is moving through the universe at more than 600 kilometres per second relative to the background of microwave radiation left over from the beginning of the Beginning.
And a point well put: 
'A good theory will describe a large range of phenomena on the basis of a few simple postulates and will make definite predictions that can be tested. If the predictions agree with the observations, the theory survives that test, though it can never be proven to be correct. On the other hand, if observations disagree with the predictions, one has to discard or modify the theory.' (Stephen Hawking 2001, 'The Universe in a Nutshell', p.31. Bantam Press). [emphasis mine].
 
At present,
scientific research indicates that what we see, the stuff of stars, planets and people, really accounts for less than 5% of the mass-energy in our observable universe, while 'dark matter' seems to make up around 27%. The rest of our cosmos, around 68%, is then labeled dark energy and is thought to be the driving force behind the expansion of the universe.
So, we still have no idea what 95% of the universe is even made of . . .

The Latest!
as at Wednesday
30 October 2013
16.15 GMT/UT

The Theory of Evolution  
In the
origin of this theory, apart from the foolish idea of 'spontaneous generation', the concept of Evolution grew from the discovery of the ongoing natural processes that give us the beautiful adaptations of life: in particular, the genetic variation through sexual reproduction (in contrast to a-sexual), and also the further refining effects of this in the survival of the fittest whether by natural effects or by animal husbandry. The selective breeding of dogs for different purposes illustrates this. The theory of evolution, in its various forms, has thus provided a useful framework for biological and paleological investigation.
 
In Africa
for instance –
positively: the darker skin of African tribes provides a protection from damage by Africa's merciless sun; and,
negatively: the common sickle-cell* anaemia of West African populations arose from its high level of malaria infected mosquitoes in its ancient swamp lands meant that those with normal blood haemoglobin had a lower survival rate. This process of survival of the fittest has been an important factor in also producing the great variety visible within the human race.
*Their bent red blood cells were too narrow for the malaria parasite to breed as it is able to do in normal red blood cells.
This
process has brought about much more than simply physical differences, for group psychological trends have also been affected. Ornithology (study of birds) has provided some evidence for the genetic transmission of learned traits, through egg-swopping and hatchling-monitoring of migratory geese offspring placed in a different migration-route group, such as in the migration-routes of geese between Europe and Africa. At migration time, although being raised with a geese group that followed another route, the swapped hatchlings consistently broke away from their group to look for an alternate route from which their eggs had originally been taken.
A prime purpose of
memory in ALL species

(from the smallest insect...)
is to beneficially
modify behaviour.
Try it...!
If
the genetic transmission of learned-memory is true, this may be part of the mechanism for the development of necessary survival instincts specific to a specie. It may also be the basis for the data which led Carl Jung to his theory of a collective human unconscious.
God's design is unparalleled in its depth of flexibility in mechanisms geared to respond to a changing environment.
Hallelujah!
 
For instance in human populations: it has been shown in scientific study that, on average, East Asians do comparatively better at American universities than their European-originated counterparts, and that this has nothing to do with either intelligence or aptitude. It is an inborn tendency toward industriousness (they try harder) apparently arising from generations (inherited tendency) of a culture based on the most labour-intensive form of agriculture (rice-growing).
Remember, trends are only trends,
so there will always be exceptions.
In
addition, those populations whose ancient origins were in colder regions of our world with harsh winters have tended to be comparatively better at planning and management of resources. (There is a trace of this truth therefore in Disney's Scrooge being Scottish). And perhaps it is not coincidental then that in the recent European Union financial crisis it is the countries of southern Europe which have been the worst affected.
 
 
But more than climate differences have affected these trends. Cultural discrimination over many generations, such as suffered by the Jews of Europe during centuries of 'Christian' domination, which forbade certain occupations to them, appear to have had the long term social effect of comparatively enhancing their ability in other fields, such as trade, finance and commerce.
 
This
has absolutely nothing to do with racial superiority as Hitler and others have tried to interpreted it.
 
 
This is simply group adaptation to their varied environments over many generations which accentuated certain trends over others to survive, in the long time before industrialization and the developments of technology that enabled the previously impossible.
(Homosexuals have tended to produce less children than others, and so would have repeatedly bred themselves out of existence.)
See: Homosexuality
With
the modern mobility of humanity, improved educational opportunity, and fast developing communication methods, the mix of the variety of physiological and psychological facets of humanity can today become a beautiful symphony in service of our Awesome Creator. Hallelujah!
However,
evolution as a theory of human origin is an irreconcilable problem for the Christian, which has almost nothing to do with biblical exegesis!
          To the Christian, evolution theory is actually –
 
 
A Moral Problem!
For, the basic thrust of evolution is genetic self-advancement at the expense of others.
See: Darwinism in Germany
in 1900 AD/CE
For example
– evolution biology led directly to the German medical fraternity of the Weimar Republic terminating the lives of over 300,000 geriatric, mentally retarded, and incurably ill persons, by lethal injection. Later, Hitler's Nazis simply further developed and extended this existing practice into his vicious racial ideology. This is still Evolution's natural conclusion, if its principles are consistently applied to human society.
It
is here of interest to note that the alternate title to the first editions of Darwin's famous work, Origin of the Species, was –
The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
Über die Entstehung der Arten im Thier- und Pflanzen-Reich durch natürliche Züchtung, oder, Erhaltung der vervollkommneten Rassen im Kampfe um's Daseyn.
Hitler's ideology is itself a sufficient answer to evolution's challenge of the Biblical account of human origins.
In
contra-distinction to the marvelous mechanisms for variation of the species referred above, evolution's validation of racism is sufficient condemnation of a theory which relegates God to the role of a spectator, or at best to that of a facilitator of its mechanisms.
See:
'Center for Origins Research'
 
This is true even if one tries to rationalize this dilemma by calling evolution a 'divine' mechanism, as so-called Theistic Evolutionists attempt to show.
The
Piltdown Skull 1912 archaeological hoax fooled scientists for decades. The Piltdown Man was seen asáthe missing link that archaeologists had been searching for. In December 1912, a lawyer and amateur archaeologist named Charles Dawson announced he'd made an astonishing discovery in a gravel pit in southern England: prehistoric remains, up to 1 million years old, that combined the skull of a human and the jaw of an ape. It was 40 years before the find was exposed as a hoax by scientists at London's Natural History Museum, the same institution that had announced the find in 1912.
The Piltdown skull was actually of comparatively recent origin and comprised of the remains of a man and an orangutan.
 
The
adverse reaction of some in the scientific community to even the possibility of Intelligent Design indicates that Darwinism, as a theory of origins, also holds a quasi-religious position in the minds of many scientists today.
 
(Please note: Jastrow's insightful comment on the relevance of the 'Big Bang' singularity in 'The Genesis Prologue' on this web site) See:
The Serpent's
Dual Deception
 
As an example: Smithsonian Institute scientists of the National Museum of Natural History orchestrated such harassment of evolutionary biologist and editor Dr. Richard Sternberg (click for detail) for publishing an academic paper regarding 'intelligent design', that his employment was actually terminated.
So
characteristically, to Professor Dawkins of the UK (who believes that God 'died' when Darwin published his Origin of the Species), not to believe in Evolution and its random natural selection producing an 'illusion' of design, one must be either –
'ignorant, stupid, or insane'.
So take your pick!
Perhaps the forced sterilization of more than 60,000 Americans through into the 1970s is then still appropriate today.
Planet Prepared  —  to be the moral 'seed-plot' of the Universe...
THE  FOUNDING  PLACE  OF  THE  PEOPLES  WHOM  GOD  SO  LOVES . . .
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