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Abraham  to  Jacob
“THE EARTH IS THE LORD'S AND THE FULNESS THEREOF”
blue pinAll data subject to continuing refinement.


Psalm 24:1
.
Regarding
the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (the Jews) –
"As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your* sake.
 But as regards
[national] election [in history], they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers. 
For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable."

*The redeemed of
ALL nations.
Romans 11:28-29.
This Abrahamic Covenant is not to be confused with the Sinai Covenant which ended with Israel's confirmed rejection of their Messiah in the stoning of Stephen.
(Matthew 21:43-45;
Acts 7:55-58;
Hebrews 13:8;
Romans 7:4).
2066
In Canaan/Palestine – God affirms His covenant of the land with ABRAM;
       changes his name to ABRAHAM;
       commands the Egyptian custom of male puberty-circumcision (as previously witnessed by ABRAM in Egypt, c.2089 BC, for it was unknown in Ur) as his covenant-sign of the Promised Land for each boy-child on the eighth day after his birth; and,
       SARAH's name is changed (Genesis 17).
In Canaan/Palestine

See:
God and gods.
ABRAHAM worships God at the local Amorite/Canaanite open-air sanctuaries –
1.   at Shechem –  as ‘El-Berith’ : 'God of Covenant'   (Judges 9:4,6) See also:  Genesis 12:6-7; 35:4; Joshua 8:30; 24:26, etc.
2.   at Bethel – as ‘El-Bethel’ : 'God of Beth-el'   (Genesis 35:7)   Genesis 12:8; 28:11-22; 35:1-15, etc.
3.   at Mamre – as ‘El-Shaddai’ 'God Almighty'   (Genesis 17:1)   Genesis 13:18; 14:13; 18:1;35:27, etc.
4.   at Beersheba –  as ‘El-Olam’ 'God Everlasting'   (Genesis 21:33)   Genesis 26:23-25; 46:1-4; etc.
The Lord JESUS
accompanied by two angels (specifically referred to by Him in John 8:56) visits Abraham at his Mamre camp (Genesis 18) –
1. 
Eats meat and drinks milk with him (18:8), in contradiction of the mistaken kosher-rules of later Judaism –
"[Abraham] took curds and milk and the calf that he had prepared, and set it before them...they ate"*);
2. Promises a return visit for SARAH to conceive (18:10); and,
3. Warns him of coming judgment on the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (18:20).
*The later prohibition in the Law on 'boiling a kid in its mother's milk' (Exodus 23:19; 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21) has nothing to do with diet! That was a medieval rabbinic invention looking for an explanation. It was a prohibition on the Canaanite magic ritual to bring rain, as has been shown in the Ugaritic poems
(Chomsky 1969:60).
ABRAHAM
intercedes for mercy on the basis of a representative righteous minority ("For the sake of ten I [YHWH] will not destroy", Genesis 18:20-33) in these Amorite cities, where his nephew LOT lives in Sodom in the plain of Siddim south of the Dead/Salt Sea.
God destroys Sodom and Gomorrah (by a tectonic shift which ignites tar/bitumen-pits and rains fire upon the cities) after the two angels, who had accompanied the Lord's visit to Abraham, rescue LOT and his daughters. (Genesis 19).
ABRAHAM
moves to Gerar and deceives its king about SARAH his half-sister (Genesis 20).
  2065
ISAAC is born to ABRAHAM, at age 100 (Genesis 21:5), and to SARAH, at age 90.
  2062
ABRAHAM sends HAGAR and ISHMAEL away from Beersheba, and makes a covenant with ABI-MELECH king of Gerar (Genesis 21)
c.2050
 The Great Test of Trust 
ABRAHAM takes teenage ISAAC (about 15-years-old, and the encapsulation of his father's faith) from Beersheba to the mountains of Moriah, near Melchizedek's Salem, to offer him in human-sacrifice (Genesis 22:2).
(See: The 'Three Days Of Pain' given to re-focus Abraham's faith beyond the horizon of his own understanding).
"And in your Seed [singular]
shall all the nations of the earth be blessed..."

Genesis 22:18;
Galatians 3:16.
  2028
SARAH dies, aged 127 (Genesis 23) and is buried in the cave of Machpela at Hittite Hebron. (see October 1968 AD)
The high level of Hittite cultural influence in this founding-phase of Abraham's family and descendants (e.g. Esau, Genesis 24:46) is later referred to by the prophet Ezekiel, in addressing Israel at the beginning of their Exile, as:
"Your origin and your birth are of the land of the Canaanites;
your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite."
(Ezekiel 16:3)
"Your mother was a Hittite and your father an Amorite." (Ezekiel 16:45).
Sumerian empire weakens under Amorite attacks.
  2030?
TERAH (ABRAHAM's father, ISAAC's grandfather) would now have died without mention, if the Jewish Massoretic text of Genesis (our Bible) was correct. (See: Abrahamic Ancestry Table).
Ur is now the largest city in the world with an estimated population of 65,000.
  2025
ISAAC age 40 marries REBEKAH (Genesis 24; 25:20).
ABRAHAM marries KETURAH and fathers six more sons (Genesis 25:1-4).
  2006
In Sumer – Ur (ABRAHAM's birth-city) is captured and plundered by the Elamites.
  2005
REBEKAH gives birth to JACOB and ESAU (Genesis 25:26).
  c.2000
In Sumer – The Gutians destroy Ur.
   
In Australia – A migration from India begins (according to DNA evidence), which probably also introduced the dingo.
  1991
AMENEMHAT I establishes his rule over Egypt and begins their Twelfth Dynasty.
  1990-
ABRAHAM dies, age 175 (Genesis 25:7).
ISAAC settles in Gerar and then in Beersheba because of famine (Genesis 26).
  1971
SESOSTRIS I (SENUSRET/SENWOSRET) becomes Pharaoh of all Egypt.
  1965
ESAU marries two Hittite wives (unbelievers) to the grief of his parents (Genesis 26:34).
  1960?
(H)EBER, patronymic ancestor of the 'Hebrews' dies.
  c.1950
The arid period of severe periodic famines, which began from c.2180, now ends.
Babylonians solve quadratic equations.
  1942
ISHMAEL dies, age 137, leaving 12 sons (as God had promised Abraham, see margin) and their Arab descendants. (Genesis 25:12-18).
THE SPECIAL MEANING OF
'TWELVE'
The number 12 was understood in ancient times as representing the governance-of-God (from the division of their agricultural year into 12 moons/months), hence Hammurabi's 12-tables of his law-code (c.1792 below), the Egyptian division of day and night into 12-parts each, and consequently God's promise to Abraham that Ishmael would become 12-clans, and even the codifying of ancient Rome's laws as the Twelve Tables.
  1938
In Egypt – The 12th Dynasty begins.
  In
Phoenicia (Lebanon) – The port city of Byblos (modern Jubayl; Kubna in ancient Egyptian; Gubla is Akkadian; גְבַל‎/Gebal in Canaanite/Hebrew) becomes an Egyptian dependency (chief harbour for the export of cedar and other valuable wood to Egypt, and Egyptian papyrus to the Aegean).
  1929
In Egypt – AMENEMHAT II becomes Pharaoh of Egypt.
  1928
In Canaan/Palestine – JACOB is sent by his parents to marry a daughter of his mother's brother, LABAN, for religious reasons (Genesis 28:1-2). God meets with him in a dream in his night of insecurity at Bethel/Luz.
  In
Haran, northern Syria – JACOB falls in love with RACHEL.
  In
Canaan/Palestine – ESAU marries ISHMAEL's daughter (a believer) to impress his parents (Genesis 28,29).
  1921
In Haran, northern Syria – JACOB marries LEAH unknowingly,
and RACHEL (but cannot yet take her as wife, he must work another 7 years).
LEAH's son, REUBEN, born within the year.
In Summary from Genesis 35:23-26.:
Jacob creates his family: marrying his two first-cousins and their maid-servants (Genesis 29-35):
The four mothers of his twelve sons: Leah Zilpah Rachel (his first love) Bilhah
  1. Reuben 7. Gad 11. Joseph 5. Dan
  2. Simeon 8. Asher 12. Benjamin 6. Naphtali
  3. Levi      
  4. Judah      
  9. Issachar      
  10. Zebulun      
  Dinah      
  1919 Birth of LEVI, third son of JACOB and LEAH.
  1914 RACHEL gives birth to JOSEPH her first-born.
  1908-
JACOB flees from Haran (from control of his father-in-law) with his family and flocks (Genesis 31:41).
Depressed, after
hearing of ESAU's threat against him and now alone after evacuating his family and possessions ahead of himself, he wrestles in the dark with the LORD and his name is changed to ISRA-EL for persisting and not giving-up (Genesis 32, יִשְׂרָאֵל, apparently meaning: 'God's fighter', from שָׂרָה).
Depression can be an
opportunity to persist
 
JACOB travels on, and buys land (which he later gives to his son Joseph, Jn.4:5) and settles at Shechem in Canaan/Palestine (Genesis 33).
  LEVI
and SIMEON massacre all the males of Shechem without warning, loot the city, and enslave all the women and children (Genesis 34).
For this reason 'Joseph', as a tribe is doubled (Ephraim and Manasseh), to maintain the number Twelve after Levi is disinherited for this vicious self-righteous act.
   
JACOB moves to Bethel (on God's instruction) in fear of the Canaanite reaction to this cruelty.
Because of this cruelty God excludes their descendants forever from having tribal property in Israel (Genesis 49:5-7).
   
JACOB moves to Mamre near Hebron to see his father ISAAC, but RACHEL dies en route, giving birth to BENJAMIN (Genesis 35).
JOSEPH
is the most loved and trusted by his father –
"Israel loved Joseph more than any other of his sons, because he was 'the son of his old age'.
And he made him a robe of many colours."
The expression 'son of his old age' is NOT a reference to Jacob's age! The expression was an ancient idiom meaning 'a wise child' (W.Chomsky, and 'Jamieson, Fauset and Brown' Commentary). In ancient Semitic languages 'son of...' turns its attached noun into an adjective. For this reason (the child's wisdom) Joseph is more trusted by his father than his brothers, which paternal trust the gift of the robe confirms. Jacob is NOT guilty of unwarranted favouritism as some have ignorantly alleged.
  1897
JOSEPH, age 17, is sold into slavery by his brothers, and then resold to POTIPHAR in Egypt.
  1894
In Mesopotamia – Amorite SUMU-ABUM establishes the first Babylonian dynasty, declaring independence from the neighbouring city-state of Kazallu.(See 1595 BC/BCE).
See:
Map of Ancient
Trade Routes
  1889
In Canaan/Palestine – ISAAC dies age 180; JACOB and ESAU meet at his funeral (Genesis 35).



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