The Thomas Pages homepage
The Patriarch Abraham
blue pinAll data subject to continuing refinement.
There has been a tendency in our understanding of past civilizations to underestimate previous generations. This may be a by-product of human arrogance but it has significantly slanted our understanding and hindered our comprehension of the past and the human circumstances which are a significant backdrop to our understanding of the Bible. For instance, the spread of the Minoan civilization (from modern Crete, ancient Caphtor) whose seals show they had long mastered the use of wind power in ship propulsion, of which historian Gavin Menzies found evidence that they brought copper from the Great Lakes of North America (Menzies 2013:246), prior to its sudden total destruction by the volcanic explosion of the island of Thera (its remains today is called Santorini) and resultant tsunami (about 1,400 BC/BCE), from whose refugees the Philistines descended (Amos 9:7), should be a significant factor in our understanding the context of early Israel and its exodus from Egypt.
   For instance, up to King David's time in Israel, the Philistines were already an iron-age people while Israel was still in the bronze-age
"...every one of the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen his ploughshare..." 1 Samuel 13:20.

Asia-America land-bridge ~15,000 BC
Asia-America landbridge ~15,000 BC
BC/BCE c.80,000 In Siberia – The Denisovan people (cousins to the Neanderthals) spread.
The first layer of European ancestry, the hunter-gatherers, enter Europe before the Ice Age.
There is increasing evidence that the first human migrations to the Americas was by sea from Asia, and far earlier than previously thought (from before 27,000 BC), according to clear evidence from the Sandia Cave in New Mexico (and later Olmec engravings at La Venta from Shang era China, etc..), for the clockwise ocean current of the north Pacific facilitated this route from China, which contradicts the traditional theory of
an overland Beringia migration being the earliest.
An abrupt warming period now begins (according to Greenland ice-core analysis). The so-called Melt-water Pulse 1A, lasting about three centuries.
Because of differences in craniofacial morphology and dentition between the earliest American skeletons and modern Native Americans, separate origins have been postulated for them, despite genetic evidence to the contrary. A near-complete human skeleton with an intact cranium and preserved DNA found with extinct fauna in a submerged cave on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula dates to between 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years ago and has Paleoamerican craniofacial characteristics and a Beringian-derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup (D1). Thus, the differences between Paleoamericans and Native Americans appear to have resulted from in situ evolution rather than separate ancestral origins.
HAROLD CAMPING's ('Family Radio') date for Creation from which he then calculates the end-of-the-world to be AD/CE 2011 using a variation of the Great Week Myth of history as a basis from Noah's Flood.
See: World Weather c.10,900
The warming period ends, beginning the Younger Dryas cold spell or Big Freeze, lasting about 1,300 years.
(Greenland ice core GISP2 indicates that its summit was ~15°C colder during this Younger Dryas than it is today).
In Northern Palestine (Israel's Galilee), Hilazon Tachtit – A 45-year-old female Shaman (spirit-medium) is buried in a cave, which is later discovered in 2008 AD/CE.
Warming period begins again, and the Ice Age ends. Bristlecone Pines begin to grow near the California-Nevada border.
In South-eastern Turkey – The stone-age mountain sanctuary of Göbekli Tepe is constructed.
In the Windover area of present day Florida in North America – Stone-age Europeans from the Eastern Mediterranean begin arriving by sea and develop a settlement as indicated by genetic evidence from brain-matter of the DNA X2 haplogroup in a buried cemetery in the peat layer outside Titusville, close to Interstate 95 in Brevard County, within a few miles of present day Cape Canaveral.
southern Anatolia (modern Turkey) – The sophisticated neolithic city of Çatalhöyük develops on either side of the Çarşamba river, supported by hunting, domestic agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery and obsidian (volcanic glass) tools, with men and women apparently having the same social status. (Dated by radio-carbon and dendrochronology/tree-ring data).
In Britain – Aurochs, the big ancestors of modern cattle, red deer and boars roam.
In North America – Mt. Mazama, in America's Pacific North West, erupts violently leaving ash deposits over stone tools of the earliest inhabitants. These help to date the earlier Caucasian Ainu-type (Jomon) 'Kennewick' man's remains from that area. Later a fragment of his fifth left metacarpal, analysed by (AMS) radio-carbon dating, was shown to have an isotopically-corrected age of 8410 +/- 60 Before Present.
Arabian Peninsula – The neolithic al-Maqar civilization uses domesticated horses.
southern Sweden – In a flooded coastal valley of the Baltic Sea, hazel-rod basket traps are used to trap fish at a depth of 5–12m (16.5-40ft) in terms of sea-levels in 2012 AD/CE.
In ancient Slovenia – A simple wax cap applied to a broken tooth 6500 years ago is the oldest dental filling on record. It adds to evidence that Neolithic communities had a surprisingly sophisticated knowledge of dentistry. The recipient of the treatment was most likely a 24 to 30-year-old man, living in what is now Slovenia. His fossilised jawbone was found early in the 20th century near the village of Lonche. At the time, the find – one of the oldest human bones ever found in the region – was simply described, catalogued and filed away in a museum in nearby Trieste, Italy. Further examination later showed the dental achievement.
Glacial ice-cores on Kilimanjaro indicate the beginning of a 500-year drying period of the lakes of Africa.
Greenland ice-core indicates an abrupt century-long cold event.
الشهباء c.6,000
In Syria – The city Halab (meaning 'white' in Aramaic, with reference to the soil and abundant marble in the area), Khalpe, Khalibon, known to the Greeks as Beroea (Βέροια), and later named Aleppo in modern Syria, now begins to be settled.
the Turgai region of northern Kazakhstan, the neolithic Mahandzhar culture build at least 260 – mounds, trenches and ramparts – arrayed in five basic shapes.

NOT Noah's Flood!
The Mediterranean Sea breaks through with devastating force to fill the Black Sea basin (~50 cubic km per day). This shift of water-mass helps trigger earthquakes throughout the region.
The catastrophic drowning of such a large area causes vast human migrations. (See 2715 BC also).
(The ancient shoreline of its old freshwater lake now lies some 168 metres below the 1999 AD/CE sea level).

The common origin of the indo-european peoples as represented in the spread of their languages from a common root.
level at this time is still about 50 feet below present levels. (Holocene Optimum).
Egypt forms
The Nile river changes its course, from feeding the North African lakes, to flowing into the Mediterranean, thus creating Egypt along its watered valley.

Probably Babel
Southern Mesopotamia – The Sumerian city of Eridu/Eridug/Irîtu (now Tell Abu Shahrain, 12 km southwest of Ur) is founded.*
The Ancient Sumerian king-list reads – "[nam]-lugal an-ta èd-dè-a-ba [eri]duki nam-lugal-la" translated as "When kingship from heaven was lowered, the kingship was in Eridu" and in Sumerian mythology it is claimed to be one of the cities built before the Flood. The ziggurat ruins of Eridu are far larger and older than any others, and seem to best match the Bible's description of the unfinished Tower of Babel. The city appears to have been finally abandoned in 600 BC/BCE.
Date of Creation on the best manuscript evidences if we misuse/abuse the Bible. (See Genealogical Table)
Date of Creation according to eighth century AD Welsh historian NENNIUS (1-4, as translated by Morris).
migration into Europe of people from the Middle East introduces Neolithic farming (followed 2,000 years later by the light-skinned brown-eyed Yamnaya, also known as Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture).
'Erech' c.5,000
In Southern Mesopotamia – The city of Uruk (Erech/ארך, Genesis 10:8-10) is founded by Nimrod (נמרוד) on the fertile alluvial plain beside the Euphrates river.
Egypt – A decimal number system is now in use.
Mesoamerica – The planting of maize begins on forest-cleared land.
Rising sea levels
separate Britain from Europe – drowning vast forests of pine, alder, oak and birch.
In Africa – The monsoon retreats south to approximately where it is today,
leading gradually to the desertification of the Sahara by about 3,000 BC/BCE.
Date of Creation or later, according to Mrs ELLEN G. WHITE, principal teacher of the Seventh-day Adventist movement (based originally on the 'Great Week' myth, invented by Jewish philosopher Philo and consequent Christian view from the second-century AD/CE through the pseudo Letter of Barnabas).
The Jehovah's Witnesses 'Watchtower Society' statement –
"According to reliable Bible chronology Adam was created in the year 4026 BCE,
likely in the autumn of the year, at the end of the sixth day of creation." (1975).
October 23: Date of Creation, according to Anglican Bishop USSHER, mistakenly using genealogy as chronology.
3,961? Date of Creation according to MARTIN LUTHER, ditto.  
Date of Creation according to Abbot BEDE (703 AD/CE, Northumbria, Britain), ditto.
Date of Creation, according to rabbinic Judaism (See also: Judaism's 9th century AD/CE dating system origin), ditto.
In Egypt – A period of significantly higher Nile floods begins, continuing until c.2500 BC.
   The ancient Egyptians begin to develop mummification of the dead. (See: mummification).
   The first symbols for numbers and simple straight lines are used.
Mesopotamia – Uruk city-culture begins to spread across Mesopotamia and eventually as far as Anatolia (modern Turkey) by traders and colonists.
The 'Great Flood of Noah' now ends (if mistakenly using the Bible's genealogy as if it were a chronology).
Birth of ARPHAXAD, father/ancestor of CAINAN (See Table 1).
World's oldest
unsolved murder
    In the European Alps –
Chalcolithic (copper age) ÖTZI, victim of the world's oldest unsolved murder, dies age c.45 in the Ötz valley of the Italian Alps.
Chalcolithic murder victim
Ötzi's corpse on Schnalstal glacier
Oetzi's flint knife
Ötzi's flint knife ~3300 BC/BCE,
the same period as the ivory-handled Gebel el-Arak flint knife, of pre-dynastic Egypt.
Ötzi was also equipped with a bow and flint tipped arrows as in the reconstruction (right).
In May 2012, research into Ötzi's DNA and blood identified him as being of Mid-East origin, brown-eyed, lactose-intolerant, a carrier of lyme disease (caused by ticks), and that he had died quickly.
Birth of CAINAN, father/ancestor of SHELAH.
Glacial ice-cores indicate the beginning of a hot dry period – sadly collapsing many nomadic cultures.
The first-known political state in history forms – known as the 'Uruk expansion'.
World sea level now stabilizes to near its present level.
August 11: Starting point of the Mayan calendar (in Mesoamerica).
February 18: Hindu mythology date for the beginning of the Kali era (in India).
In Egypt – King MENES (Hor-Aha) unites the kingdoms of Upper (south) Egypt and Lower (the Delta) Egypt with his capital at Memphis.
In Mesopotamia
an earliest form of writing is now used on clay tablets in Uruk.
Birth of SHELAH, father/ancestor of (H)EBER.
Babylonians begin to use a sexagesimal number system (base 60) for recording financial transactions. It is a place-value system without a zero place-value. This is reflected today in our measurement of time and angles (i.e. 6x60=360 degrees in our circle). Their largest time measurement 'sar' was also 3,600-years (10x360).
From Genesis' detail of the Great Flood it appears that the length of a year may have been 360-days.
In Egypt – First Dynasty Pharaoh DEN (DEWEN) begins to reign, initially as co-regent with his mother MeritNeith apparently because of his young age. (Den is the first Egyptian king attested in rock reliefs in Sinai. See victory plaque)
Birth of (H)EBER, father of PELEG, and patronymic ancestor of the Hebrews (Gen.10:21; 11:16).
Uruk in southern Mesopotamia is now the largest city on earth covering 6 km² within its walled area.
NOTE: 2,806?
Birth of PELEG, father/ancestor of REU, in whose time the human family divided at Babel bullet (Gen.10:25. See previous page).
PELEG's birth, so named for its association with the division of the human race at Babel, almost certainly long pre-dates the death of Ötzi above, further indicating that Abrahamic genealogy cannot be used for chronology.
Ur becomes one of the richest cities in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia/Iraq).
NOT Noah's Flood! 2,715
Dendrochronology date (tree-ring dating) for a catastrophic Black Sea land subsidence that buries all Early Bronze Age settlements in that region under what is now 8-10 metres of water. (See also: 5,600 BC/BCE).
GILGAMESH (grandson of ENMERKAR), king of Uruk (Erech), 'visits' aged UTNAPISHTIM (Noah) of the Great Flood.
Birth of REU, SERUG's father/ancestor.
The strategically located city of Troy (situated is today's western Turkey) grows as a vital link in trade between the Black Sea and Aegean Sea areas, as well as the Mesopotamian valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The strategic location of Troy becomes very significant to the import of tin (for the manufacture of bronze) possibly from Afghanistan as well as from Cornwall.
c.2667-2648 or c.2630-2611
ZOAR (Djoser/Netjerykhet) King of Upper and Lower Egypt of the 3rd dynasty. (His step pyramid, designed by the high priest of Ra, IMHOTEP, is the earliest complete building of hewn stone in Egypt, the complex covering 15 ha / 37 acres).
Ur grave pit Plan of
the "Great Death Pit" cemetery at Ur, so called because it held the bodies of seventy-three retainers who apparently died/killed as part of the royal funeral. (Reprinted from Woolley's The Royal Cemetery, Ur Excavations, Vol. 2, published in 1934. C. Leonard Woolley, 1934, and the Iraq's Ancient Past, Penn Museum.)
In Central America – The Maya occupation at Cuello (Belize) develops settlements, and later about 1800 BC/BCE in the Soconusco region of the Pacific coast. The Maya are already cultivating the staple crops of maize, beans, squash, and chili pepper.
This period is characterised by sedentary communities and the introduction of pottery and fired clay figurines.
Southern Britain (Wiltshire) – The open-air religious sanctuary of Stonehenge (3) is transformed by using large stones rather than timber and trees to define itself, aligned in the direction of the sunrise of the summer solstice, and the sunset of the winter solstice.
Birth of SERUG, father of NAHOR.
Earth climate cools, putting once flourishing settlements in the higher latitudes under great stress, such as in the Orkney islands.
In the
Indus River valley (modern Pakistan area) – The Harappan culture builds the city of Mohenjo-daro (meaning "Mound of the Dead" in modern Sindh موئن جو دڙو‎) begins to be built on its right bank. The city's original name is unknown, but may have been Kukkutarma (City of the cockerel/kukkuta). It profited from the highly fertile lands of the Indus River floodplain and trade with the civilizations of nearby Mesopotamia.
Birth of NAHOR, ABRAM's grandfather.
Ur in Mesopotamia is conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of Agade/Akkad (the site of Akkad city has never been found).
There is evidence of a huge meteor strike devastating southern 'Iraq'/Mesopotamia at this date according to tree-ring dating (dendrochronology) which would have led to the breakdown of these kingdoms (other date estimates vary between c.2400-2100 BCE).
The Dead Sea level now drops by about 100 metres.
In ancient Anatolia (modern Turkey) – The city of Troy (level IIg) is utterly devastated by fire as well as the region to Tell Leilan (possibly by a meteor shower).
SARGON (Sharru-kinu='Legitimate-king') king of Kish, founds the Akkadian Empire.
(Middle Chronology)
SARGON I (2371-2316) of Akkad (in Semitic), Agade (in Sumerian), conquers Sumer (Shinar/שִׁנְעָר/Šin`ar), and makes his daughter *EN-HEDU-ANA high priestess/consort of the moon god Nanna (full moon) at Ur (meaning 'the abode of Nanna'; he is also known as En-zu 'lord of wisdom' regarding astrology).
The name
'Sumerian' was given to them by these Semitic Akkadians as a geographic reference, but they referred to themselves as 'the black-headed people' (phonetically: uŋ saŋ giga).
The Mesopotamian
post-Akkadian cylinder seal from this period, often called the 'seal of temptation' because it has been seen as depicting Adam and Eve on either side of the Tree with serpents in the background, is more likely that of a god (shown by his horned-headdress) receiving a worshipper at the tree of fertility when interpreted within its own historical context.
LUGAL-ZAGESI (originally of Umma), makes Uruk his new capital after conquering all Sumer.
NARAM-SIN (grandson of SARGON) conquers the area from Elam (south-west Iran) to Syria, including the city of Ebla.
RIMUSH of Akkad conquers Elam and Marhashi (central Iran).
Birth of TERAH, ABRAM's father.
East Africa, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Gulf of Oman, Aegean, and Indus regions experience an abrupt climatic change.
A period of low Nile floods begins that includes periodic severe famines, until c.1950 BCE.
(Analysis and carbon dating of ancient sediments from Lake Tana in Ethiopia – the source of the Blue Nile – found that around 4,200 years ago, lake levels dropped considerably, indicating massive water shortages and drought may have ultimately brought an end to Egypt’s first major dynastic civilization, the collapse of the Old Kingdom.
אוּר כַּשְׂדִים
Ur of the Chaldees
Birth of ABRAM in Ur (אוּר/Urim/Tell el-Muqayyar, today north of the Tallil military air base in Iraq), the land of their 'kindred' (Genesis 11:28), capital and port of Sumer (river sediment has since pushed the coastline far south), whose patron deity is the Sumerian moon god Nanna (the name of the city is derived from the god's name, URIM).
Many years later, Israel is reminded –
"...'Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, 'Long ago, your fathers lived beyond the Euphrates,
Terah, the father of Abraham and of Nahor; and they served other gods'."
(Joshua 24:2)
The Euphrates has also altered its route since this time.
Akkadian empire under SHU-TURUL collapses.
c.2,160 Climatic changes hasten the end of Egypt's Old Kingdom.  
In Phoenicia/Lebanon – Ancient Byblos/Gebal is destroyed by fire, probably by invading Amorites. (See: 1938 BC/BCE)
See: Code of Ur-Nammu 2,112
King UR-NAMMU, founder of Ur's 3rd Dynasty, builds the great Ziggurat Temple.
(He uses column, arch, vault, and dome forms of architecture, with every wall being an imperceptible convex to create an illusion of strength; the so-called entasis principle).
Short Chronology c.2047-2030 2,095
UR-NAMMU dies, his son SHULGI rules the Sumerian empire (2094-2047) and extends it to all Assyria.
    "By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out, to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance.
And he went out, not knowing where he was going."
(Hebrews 11:8).

Abram's Origins
Akkadian-speaker ABRAM enters Canaan at the age of 75, from Haran (חָרָן/Harran) after the death of his father TERAH there.
Note the connection between Terah's son Haran, father of Lot, who died prematurely in Ur and the name of this north Syrian settlement where Terah himself died. This connection is often disputed because, although pronounced the same, they are differently spelled in Hebrew. However, this same spelling difference in principle applies between Jacob's 'Peniel' and 'Penuel' (Gen.32:30,31) which refer to the same place, for these names were used from before alphabetic spelling was invented.
So, it would appear as though Terah's heartbreak over Haran's premature death continued and prevented him completing their faith-journey which began in their leaving Ur of the Chaldees.
ABRAM worships God (יהוה) at the local open-air Amorite sanctuary in Shechem, where God promises to give the land to the future descendants of ABRAM (Genesis 12:7).
the Hebrew of our Bible is derived from the Canaanite language, which Israel's Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, learned in Canaan (in addition to the influence of the Ancient Egyptian language), the Bible's Hebrew also shows the influence of the (Assyro-Babylonian) Akkadian language in both its vocabulary and in its grammatical structure.
Akkadian was
the primary diplomatic language throughout the Middle East in this time.
For instance, even later, the letters which the Canaanite princes of fourteenth century BC/BCE wrote to the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaton in his new capital at Tel-el-Amarna, recovered by archaeologists, were written in Akkadian (not in their own Canaanite or in pharaoh's Egyptian language as one would have expected).
          The following is a sample of associated terms –
    English           Akkadian   Biblical/Paleo-Hebrew
1.   artist, artisan         ummanu   omman
2.   I   anaku   anokhi/ánuk
3.   book   shipru   sefer
4.   went   alaku   halakh
5.   locust   erebu   arbeh
6.   cattle   alpu   eleph
7.   enemy   ayabu   oyeh
8.   light   urru   or
9.   inward parts, bowels   kirbu   kereb
10.   eleven   ishten eshrit   ashte esreh
11.   palace   ekallu   heikhal
12.   governor, ruler   shaknu   sokhen, segen/sagan
13.   chief, captain   sharru   sar

ABRAM moves to Egypt because of famine (Gen.12:10) and lies about his wife SARAI to the Tenth Dynasty Pharaoh, ruler of northern Egypt.
SARAI is taken into the Pharaoh's harem as wife (Gen.12:15) and ABRAM is prospered by Pharaoh (12:16), but God afflicts Pharaoh and his household with great affliction/blows (נגע) which leads Pharaoh to discover ABRAM's deceit.
Pharaoh of Egypt expels ABRAM and family for his deception regarding SARAI, so they return to Canaan, and ABRAM and LOT separate due to the increased size of their flocks and herds (Gen.13:6).
LOT eventually settles with his family in the Canaanite city of Sodom (Gen.13:12), which is later attacked by the Mesopotamian confederate armies (Gen.14).
Amorite city-king of Salem and priest of God Most High (כהן לאל עליון), supplies food and drink to the troops of ABRAM and his Amorite/Canaanite Allies, after their military action to rescue LOT and his fellow captives taken from the cities of the plain of Siddim (south of the Dead/Salt Sea).
ABRAM gives this priest-king of Salem City 10% (as per the temple-tax percentage of Abraham's Mesopotamian background) of the recovered Canaanite goods (robbed from Sodom, etc.) from the plundering by the Eastern Alliance armies (Gen.14:18-20).
(This act of Abraham toward Melchizedek later serves as a prophetic analogy of Israel's Messiah being also greater than Abraham, and having a non-hereditary (i.e. earned) priesthood before God – "forever": Psalm 110:4, in contrast to the 'order of Aaron').
 "The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever after the manner of Melchizedek'."  (JPS)
Note:  Abram
adopts this king of Salem's Canaanite terms for God, such as El Elyon (אֵל עֶלְיֹון), in rebuking the city-king of Sodom; terms also later found on clay tablets of the ancient Canaanite city of Ugarit (excavated at Ras Shamra, 6 miles/10 km north of Al-Lādhiqīyah/Latakia on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria from 1929 AD/CE).
(This language of the Amorites of Canaan/Palestine, known to us as Canaanite, eventually becomes the language of the family of Abram and directly ancestral to the Hebrew of our Bible).
Ibrāhīm ابراهيم God
promises ABRAM the impossible – innumerable descendants (in spite of his old age and his wife's infertility).
Although this promise is humanly impossible (Heb.11:12), ABRAM believes/trusts God beyond his own understanding and he is therefore considered personally righteous before God (Gen.15:6).
God enters
See: Israel's Right to
into a formal covenant with ABRAM concerning the Land of Palestine (Gen.15:8-21) by walking between the divided offerings (15:17) according to the custom of the time, each half of the offering representing the other party to the covenant.
Please note right side-bar for the terms used   
ISHMAEL is born to ABRAM and HAGAR (Gen.16); from whom all the Arab tribes are descended through Ishmael's twelve clans (Gen.17:30).

The invention of
alphabetic script during the so-called Middle Bronze age in Palestine/Canaan (attested by the Proto-Sinaitic script sample found in Sinai as depicted in the first column below) is of incalculable significance for the development of written records, being a representation of spoken language rather than of ideas (pictograms/logograms, such as in Egyptian hieroglyphics, etc.).
Spoken–Language Script    
is invented:
(Early Canaanite)
Phoenician Phoen. value Phoen. name Old*Hebrew Hebrew Arabic   Greek   Latin   Cyrillic
ʼ ʾalp "ox" א ا‎   Α   A   А
b bet "house" ב ب‎ Β B Б, В
k kap "hand" כ ك‎ Κ K К
m mem "water" מ م‎ Μ M М
ʻ ʿen "eye" ע ع Ο O О
r roʾš "head" ר ر Ρ R Р
development within Canaanite civilization of the transcription of spoken language; and, the
following four generations of patriarchal association with this particular civilization
(Abraham to Jacob's twelve sons, before its moral deterioration during Israel's subsequent 430-years in Egypt),
is of huge strategic significance, by its timing and location, in the building of Israel as a future bridge for –
the written revelation of God – the Bible – to the world,
its various parts written originally over the following centuries in –
Old/Paleo-Hebrew, Aramaic, and Hellenistic (Koine/Common/International) Greek.
The following red-line
chart roughly expresses the historical family relationship between the scripts of these languages over about three thousand years.
The Phoenician link (red text below) of the alphabet descent spread its use most widely through their trading activities. The Biblical Hebrew script (blue text below) gave rise to the Samaritan script.
The modern

descendants of this Canaanite Alphabet Family are shown below against a white background framed in blue (today's widely used English/Latin alphabet is more accurately designated below as Western).
And so:
  From About 1900 BC/BCE – –   To About 1000 AD/CE  
Without this development
the Bible would not exist.

"Then what advantage has the Jew?
Or what is the value of circumcision?
Much in every way
To begin with,
the Jews were entrusted with

[written] oracles of God."
(Romans 3:1-2).

Copyright © Lloyd Thomas 1997-2017. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
Feel free to copy, as long as this full copyright notice is included.