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King Herod the Great  to  General Varus
"So, The Lord Himself will give you [Ahaz] a sign:
 Behold! The virgin
[almah/young woman] will conceive and will bring forth a son; and she shall call His name Immanuel."
Isaiah 7:14 Literal Translation (dual significance of Isaiah's wife and then of the Messiah)

– data subject to continuing refinement –
See: Isaiah's Virgin
• ARISTOBULUS III (King HEROD's 17-year old brother-in-law) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
Uncooperative Aristobulus is later drowned at a party in Herod's palace, probably at Herod's command. (Josephus).
A Jubilee Year
• HANANEL becomes Jewish High Priest in Jerusalem.
King HEROD defeats the Nabatean Arabs and annexes Esbus.
Earthquake shakes Jerusalem and destroys Qumran (Mesad Hasidim, 'Stronghold of the Pious').
September 2: Near Actium (off North Western Greece) HEROD's Roman patron MARK ANTONY is defeated (with CLEOPATRA who escapes) by Admiral AGRIPPA for OCTAVIAN (AUGUSTUS) in a great naval battle. (AUGUSTUS later founds a city near this naval encounter named Nicopolis, 'city of victory').
OCTAVIAN adds Gaza, Gadara, Hippus, and some coastal cities, to HEROD's territory, after confirming his kingship.
• JESHUA (Aramaic version of Joshua, son of PHABES) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
In Palestine – A Sabbath year for the land.
In Rome – OCTAVIAN celebrates his victory at Actium (31BC/BCE) with a great triumphal procession.
In Dacia – MARCUS CRASSUS of Rome's great Licinian family leads a military campaign against the Dacians (north of the Danube).
In Palestine – HEROD executes his wife MARIAMNE in a fit of jealousy stoked by his sister SALOME.
January 16: In Rome – OCTAVIAN, at a meeting with the Roman Senate, shrewdly renounces all his powers and territories and hands control over them to the Senators and the Roman people.
In response, the Senate grants him the right to stand for the consulship, and allow a fellow consul to put forward his candidacy alongside him, giving the appearance that the Roman Republic had been restored.
The Senate also grants OCTAVIAN an 'extended' province of Gaul (France), Syria, Egypt, and Cyprus for ten years under his control (areas containing most of Rome's military legions).
In Egypt – An earthquake causes damage to a number of buildings,
Octavian/Augustus Rules
In Eastern India – The Andhra dynasty replaces the Kanva dynasty, and rules.
In Rome – Imperator CAESAR AUGUSTUS becomes Consul for the eighth time and his partner TITUS STATILIUS TAURUS becomes Consul for the second time.
Politician and poet GAIUS CORNELIUS GALLUS dies (b.70 BC).
In Athens – DIOTEIMUS ALAIEUS is one of the city's Archons.
• SIMON (son of BOETHUS) becomes Jewish High Priest in Jerusalem.
A Sabbath Year of the land in Palestine.
In Rome – Unease of the increasing autocracy of OCTAVIAN is neutralised by him persuading the Senate to make him a tribune, a representative protector of the Roman Republic.
Israel Year 1429 20
In Jerusalem – HEROD the Great (president of the Olympic Games) begins a complete remodeling of the Jewish Second Temple, including the fort Baris which he renames Antonia after MARK ANTONY.
King HEROD now takes control of the Jewish High Priest's vestments.
Cities of Panias and Gaulanitis are placed under his rule and he rebuilds Samaria (Shomron) and names it 'Sebaste' (Greek form of 'Augustus') after OCTAVIAN.
In Rome – OCTAVIAN formally takes the name AUGUSTUS ('revered'/'sacred'), and changes the fixed speaking order in the Senate to allow random discussion. He also imposes fines for non-attendance, and limits compulsory Senate meetings to twice a month. (Baker 2006:166).
AUGUSTUS negotiates a treaty with Parthia and the captured Roman military standards are returned. (See 55 BC/BCE). The standards are brought back to Rome as a victory, placed in the temple of Mars the Avenger, and a triumphal arch is dedicated.
May 30: In Rome – At the top of the Aventine hill (by arrangement of AUGUSTUS) priests receive the First Fruits from the citizens, for distribution during the Games, and in return distribute to them sulphur, tar and torches to be burnt by every citizen in a private cleansing ritual before the Games (reputedly held only every 110 years).
May 31 to June 3: In Rome – The 'Games of the Ages' is first celebrated in three days of visually impressive sacrifices at the city's temples – to Diana (goddess of fertility and childbirth), to Mother Earth (goddess of vegetation, regrowth and bountiful produce) by sacrifice of a pregnant sow, to Apollo (god of peace and art), and to Jupiter (Rome's patron god), rather than the gods of the underworld previously celebrated. (Baker 2006:179).
This is then followed by seven days of chariot races, Latin and Greek theatre tragedies and comedies, stunt riding, animal hunting and mock battles. On the last day a special song is presented to the citizens by two choirs dressed in white (representing victory); a choir of twenty-seven boys , and a choir of twenty-seven girls.
Augustus Caesar bust in British Museum
Caesar Augustus
In Palestine – a Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
An edict by Roman emperor AUGUSTUS confirms the right of Jews to send their shekel to the Jerusalem Temple.
AUGUSTUS sends his military legions across the Rhine to invade 'Germany' under his commander Drusus as far as the river Weser, and by 9BC/BCE they advance through the territory of the Cherusci and reach the Elbe.
The Germanic tribe Batavi are his ally.
A Sabbath Year  9
In Palestine – a Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
HEROD executes his own sons ALEXANDER and ARISTOBULUS at the instigation of their jealous older brother ANTIPATER.
Herod's cruelty: see 5 & 4 BC.
Some have speculated that a planetary conjunction of Jupiter (signifying 'king') and Saturn (signifying 'Palestine') was the "star" of Bethlehem seen by the Wisemen from the East, to move them to travel to Jerusalem (over more than a year, according to Herod's calculation for his mass infanticide) in search of Israel's new-born king, but this is unlikely for the following reason.
A triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurs in the constellation Pisces:
  • May 27: the first conjunction of the two is 0.99 degrees apart;
  • October 5: the second happens at 0.98-degree separation;
  • December 5: the third happens at a separation of 1.05 degrees;
but at no point do the two planets appear much less than two full-moon diameters apart, so it is unlikely that they are seen by the experts of the time as a 'star'. (See: February, 6 BC).
End June: In Jerusalem – ZACHARIAH the priest is visited in the Temple during his priestly service by the angel GABRIEL regarding the coming conception and birth of his son, JOHN (the Baptist).
c.December: The same GABRIEL informs MARY (virgin daughter of HELI, and the granddaughter of MATTHAT) that she will conceive by the power of God, and that her aged cousin ELIZABETH (wife of Zechariah the priest) is already six-months pregnant.
During the priestly Division of Abijah's two week per annum service. Luke 1:5.
Israel Year 1443 6
February: A massing of three planets occurs in the constellation Pisces, when Jupiter, Mars and Saturn come within 8 degrees of each other, which some suspect may have been the Magi's 'star'. (This event occurs only once every 800 years, approximately, and would have had great significance to the astronomers/astrologers of the time). (See: March, 5 BC).
The Christ is conceived!
(As per the secondary-meaning
of Almah in Isaiah 7:14.)
The Spirit of God anoints Mary/Mariamne/Maryam/مريم, a betrothed virgin from Nazareth in Galilee,
as she enters her cousin Elizabeth's home in Judaea,
and she conceives Jesus/Isa/عيسى – the holy Christ of God.
Luke 1:39-55
See: Genealogy of Jesus
March: Chinese records indicate a nova at this date, in southern Aquila, which some suspect may have been the star of the Magi but this does not explain the conclusion of the Magi about its meaning.
c.End March: JOHN THE BAPTIST's birth; his father ZECHARIAH is healed of his dumbness when he asserts the child's name as given by the angel of God, and he is filled with the Spirit and prophesies about his child.
Full Genealogy of Jesus
c.April: JOSEPH, engaged to the young virgin MARY (Mariamne), finds that she is pregnant and being righteous decides to (privately) legally end their engagement to marry, but is then told in a dream by God's angel –
"Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.
She will bear a son, and you shall call His name Jesus
[Je-hoshua, not Yeshua], for He will save His people from their sins."
(Matthew 1:20-21, the same name that is translated today as 'Joshua' which means 'the Lord saves').
'Yeshua' is the Aramaic version of the Hebrew name, but which looses the 'Hoshua' reference to salvation.
See: A Biblical Structure of History
Late September: MARY, daughter of HELI of the tribe of Judah, gives birth to JESUS in a stable in a cave behind the Bethlehem inn.
"But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, who are too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for Me one who is to be ruler in Israel, whose coming forth is from of old, from ancient days"
(Micah 5:2 ESV)
The angelic choir, which appeared to the Bethlehem shepherds in announcing the Christ's birth, expresses the unique nature of this event as they saw it. Although Jesus (in the beginning of all things) had stepped down from His intrinsic eternal infinity as part of God's being, in bringing the time–space continuum (framework) into existence within which all creation exists, His actually becoming part of that creation through the womb of Mary is indescribably uniquely greater in the awesome perspective of the angels of God. "'Fear not, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people.
For unto you is born this day in the city of David [Bethlehem] a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord.
And this will be a sign for you: you will find a baby wrapped in swaddling cloths and lying in a manger
[animal feeding trough].'
And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the Heavenly host praising God and saying,
'Glory to God in the Highest, and on earth peace among those with whom He is pleased!'"
(Luke 2:1-14)
New-born infant JESUS is seen by local shepherds lying in an animal feeding-trough in a cave behind Bethlehem's inn;
After 40 days baby JESUS is brought to the Jerusalem Temple by MARY and JOSEPH for the prescribed first-born-son offering
(the pauper-offering which they bring indicates their economic poverty, Luke 2:24; Leviticus 12:8);
3.  In the Jerusalem temple, JESUS is prophesied over by aged SIMEON and by HANNAH;
4.  And child JESUS is returned to a house in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:11).
Magi (probably Zoroastrian) react to an astrological sign of the birth of a Jewish king and set out for Jerusalem, the capital city of the Jews. (Catacomb depictions of these Magi show them in Persian clothing).
c.Year end: Magi from the East arrive at HEROD's court in Jerusalem to honour a new-born Jewish king, but are redirected through the Scripture prophecy in Micah 5:2 to Bethlehem.
They visit child JESUS in a Bethlehem house, leave gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh;
   Warned in a dream, the Magi return to their land without informing HEROD. (Matthew 2:12).
Warned in a dream, JOSEPH evacuates MARY and the child JESUS to Egypt (Matthew 2:13), probably financed by the Magi's gifts.
Bethlehem Massacre In
Jerusalem – To protect his dynasty, King HEROD orders the killing of all boy children under two-years-old in the Bethlehem district, according when the Magi's 'star' had appeared (Matthew 2:16; Jeremiah 31:15). This act of Herod is consistent with his brutal behaviour in March the following year a few weeks before his death.
Bethlehem Massacre
Israel Year 1445 4
March 13: King HEROD removes MATTHIAS as High Priest for possible complicity in the destruction of the great golden eagle which HEROD had placed over the main entrance to the Jerusalem temple.
Jericho, near King Herod's residence – The two rabbis, JUDAS and MATTHIAS, who incited destruction of the golden eagle, and at least 40 of their disciples who had carried it out, are burned alive. This night there is an eclipse of the moon (Josephus Ant.17.6).
  • HEROD appoints JOAZAR as High Priest with popular support.
Death of Herod the Great
c.End March or early April: King HEROD the Great dies, five days after executing his own son ANTIPATER (first child of his first wife, DORIS).
Jewish factions revolt, but order is restored by the Roman legate of Syria VARUS who takes command of Judea, Samaria and Galilee, crucifying thousands and selling many into slavery.
Rome re-establishes governance and divides HEROD's kingdom among his sons:
•  Judea and Samaria given to ARCHELAUS;
•  Galilee and Peraea (southern Transjordan) to ANTIPAS; and
•  Batanaea (northern Transjordan) to PHILIP.
"For He comes up before Him
as a tender plant, and
as a root out of a dry ground".
Isaiah 53:2a
See: Hidden Prophecies
In Judaea – JOSEPH returns with MARY and child JESUS from Egypt, but after hearing that ARCHELAUS' rules in Judaea he is warned in a dream and settles in their hometown Nazareth in Galilee instead of Bethlehem (Matthew 2:19-22). (See March, 3 BC)
the Jordan Valley, near the Dead Sea – The Qumran settlement of dissident Judaism is rebuilt and occupied.
• ELEAZAR (son of BOETHUS) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
c.March: In Jerusalem – HEROD's son ARCHELAUS kills 3000 Jews in the Temple and surrounding area at Passover who resist his rule (Josephus Wars. 2.6.2). He travels to Rome to be formally awarded rule over Judaea.
While he is away resentment against Roman and Herodian authorities boils over into anarchy. Various Jewish would-be-kings exploit Jewish nationalism and cause chaos.
Pentecost: Judaea is 'full of robberies'. This is probably the time referred to by Josephus when ATHRONGES, a false Jewish Messiah, and his four brothers cause much violence and take many lives (Josephus Ant. 17.278-284).
Many soldiers and civilians are killed and buildings burnt, including the Temple's cloisters.
administrator VARUS of Syria re-establishes peace and crucifies 2000 of the worst offenders (Josephus Ant. 17.10; Wars 2,4,3), and confiscates about 400 talents from the Temple treasury (Josephus Wars. 2,3).
The 3 BC date for Christ's birth is ridiculously impossible for those who believe the Bible, for King Herod, who sent his troops to massacre the boy-children of Bethlehem, died in 4 BC, so he was already dead as at this date.
• JESHUA (son of SEE) becomes Jewish High Priest.
September 11: Date for the birth of JESUS according to ROY A. REINHOLD of the Messianic-Judaism sect, using the false equidistant-letter-skip method of abusing Holy Scripture for 'Bible Codes', and so placing the Christ's conception as 13 December 4 BC/BCE.
Professional twisting
of God's Holy Word
Pharisee HILLEL establishes the legal procedure of prosbul to circumvent the Sabbatical Year cancellation of loans, prescribed in Deuteronomy 15:2. (By prosbul a Jewish religious court can now assume responsibility for collecting the debt on behalf of the lender to technically free the lender from responsibility for freeing the borrower from the debt. This corrupt practice is later canonized in the Jewish Mishna in complete violation of God's written Law).
See also:
Exodus 22:25;
Nehemiah 5:1-13.
Professional twisting
of God's Holy Word
HILLEL and/or his disciples, also teach that the sole condition for divorce described in Deuteronomy 24:1, of 'ervat davar' ("a matter of indecency", i.e. sexual), is to be divided into two causes: 'ervat' – a matter (anything!), and 'davar' – indecency (sexual sin); thereby allowing divorce for anything. By this false exegesis the leading Jewish Sage of his time made the Word of God of no effect, as Jesus later publicly condemned.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath year for the land.

Roman Imperial Edict
Caesar AUGUSTUS issues a decree permitting all Jews within the Roman Empire to follow their own customs: that is – meet in synagogues; send money to Jerusalem; be exempt from any civic activity that would violate their sabbath or their consciences. (Josephus Ant.16:162-5).
"Caesar Augustus, pontifex maximus, holding the tribunician power, proclaims:
Since the nation of the Jews and Hyrcanus [II], their high priest, have been found grateful to the people of the Romans, not only in the present but also in the past, and particularly in the time of my father, Caesar, imperator, it seems good to me and to my advisory council, according to the oaths, by the will of the people of the Romans, that the Jews shall use their own customs in accordance with their ancestral law, just as they used to use them in the time of Hyrcanus, the high priest of their highest god; and that their sacred offerings shall be inviolable and shall be sent to Jerusalem and shall be paid to the financial officials of Jerusalem; and that they shall not give sureties for appearance in court on the Sabbath or on the day of preparation before it after the ninth hour.
But if anyone is detected stealing their sacred books or their sacred monies, either from a synagogue or from a mens' apartment, he shall be considered sacrilegious and his property shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans."
  Roman Palestine. first century AD
The quickest means of travel in the Roman empire was by sea:
Rome to  Carthage: 5 days
Rome to  Tingis (the southern 'Pillar of Hercules'): 15 days
Rome to  Constantinople: 21 days
Rome to  Alexandria in Egypt: 14 days

On land, the famous Roman road network was primarily designed to speed the movement of couriers and armies
(trade was a secondary consideration).

But even a good road is only really usable by day; horses and riders tire out.
River communications were preferred where possible for the same reason sea travel was preferred.

One of the reasons Rome became politically less and less important in the later Empire was the impossibility of managing wars across the Rhine or the Danube with several weeks of inescapable communications lag:
forward headquarters like Trier, Milan, and Sirmium became the real 'capitals' of the empire since the emperors had to spend so much time there rather than in Rome.
Jews comprise about ten-percent of the population of the Roman Empire.
In Germania – Roman General TIBERIUS, under order of Emperor AUGUSTUS, quells revolts (15).
In Rome – GAIUS CAESAR and LUCIUS AEMILIUS PAULLUS are appointed as consuls.
In Athens – AREIUS PAIANEIUS becomes Archon.
  World Jewish population is estimated at 4.5 million (1.785%) of a world total of 252 million (Barnavi 1992:1).  
In Germania – Five German tribes are unified by MARBOD, King of the Marcomanni. The unification of these tribes represents a direct threat to Rome in the area that will later become Silesia and Saxony.
In Rome – The rule of Emperor AUGUSTUS is renewed for a ten-year period.
In Athens – MENNEAS becomes Archon.
In Rome – Emperor Caesar AUGUSTUS summons TIBERIUS to Rome, and names him as his heir and future emperor.
In Rome: A young senator, EGNATIUS RUFUS, insists on standing as an independent candidate for consulship, with popular support.
But he is tried and executed for 'conspiracy', because his candidacy was not approved by AUGUSTUS and he refused to withdraw his nomination. (Baker 2006:167).
See also:
Revelation 13:1-2 concerning its future
replication at the end in rule over Palestine.
The (politically hybrid) 'Fourth Beast' of Daniel 7:7 (Roman rule) has now fully arrived, with –
•  the 'mouth' of a lion (dictatorial Caesar);
•  the 'feet' of a bear (legislative Senate);
•  the 'appearance' of a leopard (Tribunes elected by vote of the citizenry).
A Biblical Structure of History

annual salary of a Roman soldier is now fixed at 900 sesterces, with the promise of a pension of 12,000 sesterces upon retirement from the army. (Minimum subsistence for a peasant family is estimated at 500 sesterces per annum about this time). The Roman army is estimated to now consume half the total annual budget of the Roman Empire.
Israel Year 1455
A Sabbath Year.
• JOAZAR (son of BOETHUS) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
King ARCHELAUS antagonises his Jewish subjects and they appeal to Rome.
SIMON the Essene interprets ARCHELAUS' dream. ARCHELAUS is deposed accordingly, by Rome, and exiled to Gaul.
is annexed by Emperor AUGUSTUS and becomes part of the Roman province of Syria.
• ANNAS (son of SETH) is appointed high priest by Senator QUIRINIUS, Roman legate of Syria.
COPONIUS becomes the Roman governor (procurator) of Judaea.
JUDAS the Galilean (Judas of Gamala), with ZADOK the Pharisee, found the Zealots (a theocratic-nationalist sect) and revolt against the Roman tax census. (Many years later, after the birth of Christianity, GAMALIEL I makes reference to the end of this JUDAS' in his advice to the Jewish Sanhedrin regarding the Christian leaders whom they had arrested; Acts 5:37).
In Rome – Emperor AUGUSTUS banishes Rome's famous poet OVID to the frontier town of Tonis (now Constantia) on the Black Sea (at the time a miserable frontier post) for his licentious influence among the people expressed in his poem 'The Art of Love' (Baker 2006:180).
April 29, Passover: In Jerusalem – JESUS of Nazareth visits the Temple at age 12 (He turned 12 c.September 8AD/CE), questions the Jewish Bible teachers, and asserts to His parents the absolute priority of His relationship to God. (Luke 2:46-49).
In Rome – The Roman law Lex Papia Poppaea completes the Leges Juliae/Julian Laws, imposing penalties (under influence of AUGUSTUS) for celibacy and childlessness in an effort to increase the Roman population.
Autumn: In

See: Infant Sacrifice
central Europe (Germany) – in the Teutoberg Forest, German forces under ARMINIUS (HERMAN), chief of the Cherusci people and most of the Chaici, Maroboduus, and Macromanni Teutonic tribes, to ambush and destroy three Roman legions (17th, 18th, and 19th).under PUBLIUS QUINTILIUS VARUS. About 30,000 Roman legionaires are massacred, but some of the senior Roman officers are taken captive to offer in human sacrifice to the German god Donar. VARUS commits suicide.
Human sacrifice
in Germany to
the god Donar!

See: very useful digital map of the ancient Roman world
Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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