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Emperors Caligula  to  Hadrian

– subject to continuing refinement –
Jewish priest (later historian) JOSEPHUS (Yosef Ben Matityahu/Joseph son of Matthias) is born (See 64 AD).
March 16: Roman Emperor TIBERIUS dies in Capri.
March 18: In Rome – The Senate annuls his will and proclaims CALIGULA as Roman Emperor.
Emperor CALIGULA (Gaius Caesar Germanicus) reigns and abrogates the special exemptions and rights of Jews.
He reportedly has incestuous relations with his three sisters, bankrupts the treasury while still providing a palace for his favorite horse Incitatus (whom Caligula makes a Senator and is planning on appointing it to the Highest office of Consul), and he marches the Roman army to the shores of France and orders them to pick up seashells so that he can return to Rome and celebrate his victory over the sea god Neptune.
PONTIUS PILATE appears before CALIGULA to defend himself against accusations regarding the attack and slaughter by his cavalry of Samaritans assembled on Mount Gerizim. (Josephus Ant. XVIII, iv, 1, 2).
• VITELLIUS replaces the Jewish High Priest JONATHAN with THEOPHILUS (his brother, son of ANNAS).
April 9: An earthquake destroys the city of Antioch.
October: In Rome – Emperor CALIGULA, who had suffered epilepsy from childhood, becomes seriously ill and falls into a coma. After he recovers, his mental state appears radically changed: perversely unstable, egocentric, and cruel.
Anti-Jewish riots 38
MARULLUS becomes governor of Judaea.
In Alexandria Egypt – Anti-Jewish rioting breaks out during a visit by Agrippa I. The mob wants to place statues of Emperor Caligula in every synagogue.
Roman Governor of Egypt, FLACCUS, who fails to repress the violently anti-Jewish demonstrations, is tried in Rome, exiled to the island of Andros, and later executed.
In Rome – CALIGULA orders that his own statue to be erected in the Jerusalem Temple and worshipped. PUBLIUS PETRONIUS, the legate of Syria, is ordered to implement this, objectors are to be executed and their followers enslaved.
Jewish riots  
Winter: In Palestine – Jewish riots.
Emperor CALIGULA exiles HEROD ANTIPAS and his wife HERODIAS (JOHN THE BAPTIST's murderess) to Lyon in Gaul, and his territory is given to HEROD AGRIPPA.
Emperor CALIGULA exhausts the Roman treasury by his personal extravagance and political gifts.
Rome – Jewish scholar PHILO of Alexandria, Egypt, leads a delegation to emperor CALIGULA to call for their rights, conferred on them under the PTOLEMIES, and confirmed by AUGUSTUS (see 1 AD), to be upheld (see 41 AD).
of Tarsus returns from Damascus to Jerusalem (three years after leaving);
Christians are distrustful of him (Ac.9:26) except Barnabas (bar-Nabas) who introduces him to the Twelve and to James brother of Jesus (Ac.9:27), and he spends 15 days conversing with Peter (Gal.1:18) while he preaches boldly in the city which raises public hostility against him and his assassination is planned by the Jews of Jerusalem.
Jewish Christians take him down to Caesarea and he leaves from there for his hometown of Tarsus in Cilicia (Ac.9:30).
In Ptolemais – PETRONIUS arrives from Antioch with three legions, en route to install CALIGULA's statues in Jerusalem's Temple or exile the Jews from Judaea if they refuse, and is petitioned en-mass by the Jews, who remind him that sacrifices are offered for Rome's emperor twice a day in Jerusalem's Temple (Jos. War 2:10:4).
All agriculture in the countryside comes to a halt during this prolonged stand-off of about fifty days ('it was about seed time'), so PETRONIUS withdraws his army to Antioch and appeals to CALIGULA for advice.
In Rome – Emperor CALIGULA is consul without colleague.
The Jews testify to Petronius that they offer sacrifice for Caesar twice a day in their Jerusalem Temple.
CALIGULA starts on a campaign to conquer Britain, which fails, but he declares himself victorious regardless.
CALIGULA also reforms the principatus into a Hellenistic Autocracy, distributes honours carelessly, declares himself a god, and orders that all the heads of the Greek deity statues be replaced by his own. He also appoints his horse, Incitatus, as a senator.
In Europe – The Celtic Noricum (in the area of later Austria south of the Danube), and also Mauretania in Africa (it later becomes a Roman province in 44 AD), both become part of the Roman Empire.
The Germanic Quadi tribe begin settling in present-day Moravia and Slovakia.
Jewish riots 41
January 24: In Rome – CALIGULA is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. The Jews of Alexandria riot in response.
25: In Rome – After a night of negotiation, CLAUDIUS (age 50) is accepted by the Senate as emperor (by bribing the troops, according to Seutonius). He suppresses the Alexandrian riot and executes its leaders, but makes its Jews full citizens of Alexandria.
Jewish philosopher PHILO of Alexandria (leader of its Jewish community) writes his 'Legatio ad Gaium' at Rome while waiting for an audience with emperor CLAUDIUS.
CLAUDIUS decrees that all Jews are to have freedom to practice their religion without hindrance and that they in turn are to respect the religions of others.
"Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, pontifex maximus, holding the tribunician power, proclaims:
...Therefore it is right that also the Jews, who are in all the world under us, shall maintain their ancestral customs without hindrance and to them I now also command to use this my kindness rather reasonably and not to despise the religious rites of the other nations, but to observe their own laws."
CLAUDIUS gives King HEROD AGRIPPA Judaea, and
• replaces THEOPHILUS as High Priest with SIMON CANTHERAS (son of BOETHUS), the father-in-law of King HEROD.
• Later AGRIPPA removes SIMON and, at JONATHAN's request, appoints MATTHIAS (his brother) as Jewish High Priest.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
is no Roman governor/procurator of Judaea from 41 to 44 AD/CE.
Emperor Claudius, bust in British Museum, London
CLAUDIUS Caesar, rules
January 41 – October 54 AD

Click for the full text of his letter
HEROD AGRIPPA I is king over Judaea and all Palestine in this time, and he begins building Jerusalem's third outer defence wall.
November 10: Emperor CLAUDIUS writes to the city of Alexandria in Egypt ordering kindness and forbearance toward their Jews and instructing the Jews not to agitate for more privileges than was formerly given them under AUGUSTUS.
"Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Imperator, Pontifex Maximus, Holder of the Tribunician Power, Consul Designate, to the City of the Alexandrians, greeting.
...As for the question , which party was responsible for the riots and feud (or rather, if the truth be told, the war) with the Jews, although in confrontation with their opponents your ambassadors, and particularly Dionysios the son of Theon, contended with great zeal, nevertheless I was unwilling to make a strict inquiry, though guarding within me a store of immutable indignation against whichever party renews the conflict. And I tell you once and for all that unless you put a stop to this ruinous and obstinate enmity against each other, I shall be driven to show what a benevolent Prince can be when turned to righteous indignation. Wherefore, once again I conjure you that, on the one hand, the Alexandrians show themselves forebearing and kindly towards the Jews who for many years have dwelt in the same city, and dishonor none of the rites observed by them in the worship of their god, but allow them to observe their customs as in the time of the Deified Augustus, which customs I also, after hearing both sides, have sanctioned; and on the other hand, I explicitly order the Jews not to agitate for more privileges than they formerly possessed, and not in the future to send out a separate embassy as though they lived in a separate city (a thing unprecedented) [a reference to PHILO], and not to force their way into gymnasiarchic or cosmetic games, while enjoying their own privileges and sharing a great abundance of advantages in a city not their own, and not to bring in or admit Jews who come down the river from Egypt or from Syria, a proceeding which will compel me to conceive serious suspicions. Otherwise I will by all means take vengeance on them as fomenters of which is a general plague infecting the whole world. If, desisting from these courses, you consent to live with mutual forebearance and kindliness, I on my side will exercise a solicitude of very long standing for the city, as one which is bound to us by traditional friendship. I bear witness to my friend Barbillus of the solicitude which he has always shown for you in my presence and of the extreme zeal with which he has now advocated your cause; and likewise to my friend Tiberius Claudius Archibius.
In Rome – CLAUDIUS expels from the city the Jews of a synagogue disrupted by disputations over CHRIST.
• MATTHIAS (son of ANNAS) becomes Jewish High Priest.
In Rome – The consuls are Emperor CLAUDIUS and GAIUS CAECINA LARGUS.
CLAUDIUS begins construction of Portus (south of Rome) on the right bank of the Tiber, with a lighthouse at its harbour.
Romans take control of Ceuta, a port city on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, and the territories of the current Algeria and Morocco become a Roman province.
In the Korean Peninsula – SURO becomes the first king of Geumgwan Gaya.
Spring: BARNABAS brings SAUL from Tarsus to Antioch to help teach its church (Ac.11:25,26).
Corinth, Greece – The virgin HEDEA wins the race for war-chariots at the biannual pan-hellenic Isthmian Games. (See PAUL on women's head covering).
• ELIONEUS (son of SIMON CANTHERAS) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
Rome – Consuls are the Emperor CLAUDIUS (his second consulship as emperor, third in total) and LUCINIUS VITELLIUS.
Britain – The Roman conquest of Britain begins. AULUS PLAUTIUS lands with four legions (20,000 men) and the same number of auxiliaries at Rutupiae (modern Richborough, on the east coast of Kent) and defeats the Britons, led by CARATACUS and TOGODUMNUS, in battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. He halts the conquest at the river Thames and sends for Emperor Claudius, who leads the march on Camulodunum.
Eleven British kings, probably including those of the Iceni and Brigantes, submit without a fight. Meanwhile, the (future emperor) Roman General VESPASIAN begins to subdue the south-west.
The Romans then begin to construct forts, such as at Peterborough, and a road that later becomes Ermine Street.
The Romans also capture a Brythonic settlement in Kent, rename it 'Durovernum Cantiacorum' (modern Canterbury), and establish a fort to guard the crossing of the River Stour.
Emperor Claudius adds Britain
to the Roman Empire.
Famine warning 44
Spring: Christian prophet AGABUS predicts widespread famine (Acts 11:27-28). (See 46 AD).
HEROD AGRIPPA I kills the apostle JAMES to please the Jews and imprisons PETER pending execution (Acts 12:1-3, 23).
• AGRIPPA I replaces MATTHIAS as Jewish High Priest with ELIONEUS (son of SIMON CANTHERAS).
King AGRIPPA is struck by an angel for his pride and his intestines eaten by worms (Acts 12:23), age 54, in the 7th year of his reign. (Josephus Antiquities. 19.8:2ff).
Note: no-one replaces the dead Foundation Apostle James (as one of the Twelve to the twelve tribes of Israel), as the renewed offer of the Kingdom to Israel, after Pentecost 30 AD, expired on their Sanhedrin's killing of Stephen after his Spirit inspired charge against the nation (Ac.7:2-57).
Judaea – CUSPIUS FADUS becomes Roman governor.
He later suppresses the c.400-strong revolt of Jewish pseudo-prophet THEUDAS who is captured and decapitated. (Acts 5:36; Josephus Antiquities 20.97-98).
BARNABAS and SAUL bring famine-aid from the Antioch church to the Judean believers (Acts 11:30;12:25).
In Jerusalem – The New Testament letter of JAMES, the half-brother of the Lord JESUS, is written to Jewish Christians in the Diaspora.
In Rome – MARCUS VINICIUS and TITUS FLAVIUS SABINUS become consuls, and ehe Senate holds consultations regarding real estate speculation in Rome.
Famine in Judea 46
The first missionary journey from Antioch in Syria of BARNABAS and SAUL, with JOHN MARK begins (Ac.13:2,13; 15:38).
In Judaea – A severe famine strikes Judaea (Josephus Antiquities. 20.101) (See 44 AD), and TIBERIUS JULIUS ALEXANDER becomes its Roman governor.
In the Roman Empire – A census shows that there are now more than 6,000,000 Roman citizens.
In Asia – A drought and locusts invasion hits the Mongolian steppes, causing a famine and a revolt at Xiongnu.
• ANANIAS (son of NEBEDEUS) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
In Rome – SERGIUS PAULUS, previously Proconsul of Cyprus and converted to Christianity by the Apostle Paul, is now appointed curator of the banks and channel of the Tiber river in Rome (a great honour) by Emperor Claudius.
Consuls are the Emperor CLAUDIUS and LUCIUS VITELLIUS.
In the Roman Empire – Romans build the Traiectum fortification near the mouth of the Rhine (which will later grows to be the city of Utrecht).
In Europe – GNAEUS DOMITIUS CORBULO is made commander of the Roman army in Germania Inferior. He conquers the Chauci and fights against the Cherusci and Frisians. He also orders the construction of the canal Fossa Corbulonis, (between the Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands), which connects the city Forum Hadriani (Voorburg).
PAUL (SAUL) and BARNABAS return from Pamphylia to Antioch in Syria.
Roman Emperor CLAUDIUS appoints HEROD AGRIPPA II (son of AGRIPPA I, great grandson of HEROD the Great) as tetrarch of Chalcis and northern territory, with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem which gives him the right to appoint the Jewish high priests.
Judaea – VENTIDIUS CUMANUS becomes Roman procurator/governor.
In Rome –
Emperor CLAUDIUS formally adopts eleven-year-old NERO as his heir. VITELLIUS is a consul.
Gallic nobles are admitted to the Roman Senate, as and CLAUDIUS grants the rights of Roman citizenship to the Aedui.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Britain – PUBLIUS OSTORIUS SCAPULA, Roman governor of Britain, announces his intention to disarm all Britons south and east of the Trent and Severn rivers. The Iceni, an independent allied kingdom within that area, revolt but are defeated. OSYOTIUS then attacks the Deceangli in north Wales, but is forced to abandon the campaign to deal with a revolt among the allied Brigantes.
In Asia – The Hsiung-nu empire disintegrates.
PAUL travels from Antioch in Syria to meet the (Jewish) Jerusalem church regarding their attitude-problem to Gentile Christians (Ac.15;Gal.2) – (So-called Council of Jerusalem).
In Rome – Expulsion of Jewish-Christians by emperor CLAUDIUS.
Philosopher SENECA (brother of Proconsul GALLIO) returns to Rome from his exile to Corsica (41AD) under Emperor CLAUDIUS.
In Greece – MELANKOMAS is boxing champion at the 207th Olympic Games.
Seneca later becomes tutor to Nero

and SILAS leave Antioch on the second missionary journey to Anatolia/Galatia, preaching, and promoting JAMES' special letter for the sake of unity between Jewish and Gentile Christians (Ac.16:4; 1Cor.8).
In Europe – The Romans learn the use of soap from the Gauls.
In Rome – Captured Brythonic king Caratācos (Caratacus) is allowed to address the Roman Senate.
Corinth – The Apostle PAUL writes his letter to the Christians in Thessalonica, Greece (known in the New Testament as 'First Thessalonians).
In Rome – Emperor CLAUDIUS and TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS are consuls.
July 1: GALLIO (Junius Annaeus Gallio) becomes governor of the province of Achaia in Greece.
Later, PAUL is charged before him after Jewish complaints for practicing an illicit religion. The charges are dismissed (Acts 18:12-17).
c.October: GALLIO appears to have left Corinth by sea because of his dislike of the place, blaming it for him feeling 'feverish' according to his brother Seneca (Letters, 104:1), thus interrupting his one year of office.
From November to March ships only sail in the Eastern Mediterranean for most serious reasons.
Corinth – The Apostle PAUL writes his letter to the Christians in Thessalonica, Greece (known in the New Testament as 'Second Thessalonians).
PAUL leaves Corinth for Cenchrea with AQUILA and his wife PRISCILLA, and then travelles to Ephesus, Caesarea, Jerusalem, and on to Antioch. (Ac.18:18; 19).
Judaea – ANTONIUS FELIX becomes Roman procurator/governor.
In Rome – A law is passed prohibiting the execution of old and crippled slaves.
In Jerusalem – Jewish High Priest ANANIAS is sent to Rome after being accused of violence.
In India – Foundation Apostle THOMAS (one of the original 12) is believed to have landed in Kodungallur, India, to evangelize.
  53 PAUL leaves Antioch on his third missionary journey (Ac.18:22,23).
Governor FELIX bribes Jews to murder their high priest JONATHAN in the Temple; thereafter many murders begin to occur among crowds at the Jewish Temple feasts (Josephus Ant. 20.8).
Roman emperor CLAUDIUS removes King HEROD AGRIPPA II from the tetrarchy of Chalcis.
*Aconitine (C34H47NO11), which is an ingredient of the monkshood plant Aconitum napellus L.
October 13: CLAUDIUS Caesar dies age 64, probably poisoned by his wife and niece AGRIPPINA the Younger ('mushrooms'* – Tacitus), who feared he might appoint his son, BRITANNICUS as his successor, instead of her own son DOMITIUS (Nero).
becomes Roman Emperor at age 16 (John's archetype of the future Antichrist in the Book of Revelation under the 666-code), and he attempts to prohibit the gladiatorial games.

Caesar Nero
Caesar NERO
In Caesarea,
Palestine – Violence erupts regarding a local ordinance restricting the civil rights of Jews, creating clashes between Jews and Gentiles. The Roman military garrison, made up of Syrians, takes the side of the Gentiles
and the Jews, armed with clubs and swords, meet in the marketplace.
governor of Judaea, ANTONIUS FELIX, orders his troops to charge them. The violence continues and FELIX asks Emperor NERO to arbitrate. NERO, sides with the Gentiles and relegates the Jews to second-class citizens. This decision increases the Jews' discontent.
In Rome – Emperor NERO becomes consul.
He eventually persuades the Senate to cut taxes from 4.5% to 2.5% to help the poor (source: Tacitus, Annals XIII.51), and expels his mother (Agrippina the Younger) from the imperial palace and installs her in Villa Antonia in Misenum.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Ephesus The Apostle PAUL writes his letter to the Christians at Corinth (called 'First Corinthians' in the New Testament).
Spring: PAUL leaves Ephesus after two-and-a-half-years of powerful ministry –
 "Paul resolved in the Spirit to pass through Macedonia and Achaia and go to Jerusalem, saying,
'After I have been there, I must also see Rome'."
(Acts 19:21).
In Corinth The Apostle PAUL writes his letter to the Christians at Rome (called 'Romans' in the New Testament) which he hopes to visit on his way to Spain.
In Rome – PUBLIUS CLODIUS THRASEA PAETUS becomes a consul.
In the Roman Empire – War breaks out with Parthia due to the invasion of Armenia by Parthian king Vologases I, who had replaced the Roman supported ruler with his brother Tiridates of Parthia.
In Macedonia – The Apostle PAUL writes his letter to the Christians in the Roman province of Galatia (which include Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, and Lystra and Derbe in Lycaonia), called 'Galatians' in the New Testament.
In Britain – QUINTUS VERANIUS NEPOS becomes Roman governor in place of Aulus Didius Gallus. He begins a campaign against the Silures of south Wales.
In Macedonia The Apostle PAUL writes his second letter to the Christians in Corinth and its surrounding district of Achaia (called 'Second Corinthians' in the New Testament).
PAUL and LUKE journey to Jerusalem with aid for the poor of its congregation (Ac.24:17) in terms of his teaching that Christians should aim at economic equality ('ἰσότης', 2 Cor.8:14) among themselves.
Christians called to
economic equality
Armenia – The Roman-Parthian War begins. The Roman commander in the East, GNAEUS DOMITIUS CORBULO, launches his Armenian offensive against Parthia. He leads an army of four legions through the mountainous country against the fortress at Volandum, to the southwest of Artaxata. After a siege of eight hours CORBULO takes the city, the legionnaires massacre the defenders and plunder Volandum to their hearts' content. CORBULO then marchs to Artaxata crossing the Aras River, along the valley he is shadowed by tens of thousands of mounted Parthian archers led by king Tiridates I. The city opens its gates to Corbulo, When he takes the 250-year-old Armenian capital, CORBULO gives the residents a few hours to collect their valuables and burns their city to the ground.
    In China – Sacrifices to Confucius are ordered in all government schools.
Jerusalem – PAUL is arrested by the Roman military after a riot in the temple (which he had attended at the request of local church leaders to allay rumours that he taught Jews to dishonour the Old Covenant); at his hearing before the Jewish Sanhedrin he provokes conflict between its Pharisee and Sadducee members (Ac.23:6,7).
• ANANIAS (son of NEBEDEUS) is Jewish high priest (Ac.23:2).
The Apostle PAUL is transferred, under heavy Roman military escort, to the Caesarea prison, because of Jewish assassination plans against him in Jerusalem (Ac.21:17-23:35).
• ISHMAEL (son of PHIABI II) becomes Jewish High Priest.
Priests Class War 59
In Jerusalem A class war breaks out between the Jewish high priests and the Jewish priests.
In Hieropolis – PAPIAS, a disciple of the Apostle John, becomes senior pastor (bishop) of its Christian church.
In Britain – Queen BOUDICA of the Iceni tribe of East Anglia rises in revolt, after having been flogged and her two daughters publicly raped by the Romans, slaughtering 70-80,000 of them in Camulodunum (Colchester), Londinium (London), and Verulamium (St Albans) and burning these cities to the ground in avenging her lost freedom, her battered body, and the abused chastity of her daughters.
Europe – The Rhoxolani are defeated on the Danube by the Romans.
Judaea – PORCIUS FESTUS becomes governor.
Jerusalem – Pharisees exclude Sadducees from entering the Jewish Temple.
Jews raise the Temple wall of the inner court to block the view from AGRIPPA's palace, and of the Roman guards patrolling on the western cloisters.
JOSEPH CABI becomes Jewish High Priest.
Caesarea, Palestine – PAUL testifies before Governor FESTUS, and King AGRIPPA II and Queen BERNICE (Ac.25:24-26:32).
Autumn: In Jerusalem – PAUL is transferred by ship from the prison in Caesarea to Rome, via Malta after shipwreck (Ac.28:1-10).
Israel's Jubilee Year 61
In Palestine – A Jewish Jubilee Year for the land.
Rome PAUL writes his 1 Timothy letter (1Tim.3:14) and is released from his first imprisonment here.
PAUL's ministry in Spain (Rom.15:24-28).
Judaea – Roman Governor FESTUS dies, ALBINUS is sent from Rome to replace him.
• In the interim King AGRIPPA replaces the high priest JOSEPH CABI (son of SIMON) with Sadducee ANANAS (youngest son of ANANUS/ANNAS).
Britain – The Druidic stronghold of Anglesey off the coast of north Wales is attacked and destroyed by Suetonius Paulinus (Tacitus, Annals xiv 30). After defeating the Iceni, the Romans continue the process of Romanizing Britain. They create Roman-style cities, install a Roman administration and build roads.
The revolt of Queen BOUDICCA against Rome and its suppression.
Jewish High Priest ANANUS
senior uses his influence to forcibly confiscate the tithes of the threshing floors for the high priests. As a result, many poorer priests suffer and some die of starvation (Jos. Antiquities 19.9).
Martyrdom of James brother of Jesus the Christ, beginning the final separation between Judaism and Christianity.
In Jerusalem – JAMES (the Just), brother of the Lord JESUS Christ and the principal leader of the Jerusalem Christian church, is executed by the Jewish leaders on instruction of their High Priest ANANUS ( חנן בן חנן/Hanan ben Hanan, Thiede, 1996, p.89-90), probably by public stoning.
This causes an outcry among the people of Jerusalem.
 historian Flavius Josephus, with direct knowledge of this atrocity (see 64 AD), reports that –
"Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road."
So he [Jewish High Priest Ananus/Annas] assembled the sanhedrin judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others. And when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the [Jewish] Law, he delivered them to be stoned.
 those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and accurate in legal matters, disliked what was done. They also sent to the King [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more; for that what he had already done was not justified. Nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrin without his consent. Albinus was persuaded by what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done. On which account King Agrippa took the High Priesthood from him when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus/Joshua the son of Damneus High Priest." (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 20.9.1).
• Other Jews complain to Governor ALBINUS on his arrival and ANNAS is replaced (after three months as high priest) with JESUS/JOSHUA (son of DAMNEUS).
• JOSHUA (son of GAMALIEL) becomes Jewish high priest.
February 5: In Italy – An earthquake causes widespread destruction around the Bay of Naples, and particularly the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. (The cities have not yet recovered from this catastrophe when they are destroyed in 79 AD).
Emperor NERO executes his wife CLAUDIA OCTAVIA (daughter of emperor Claudius).
Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year in Palestine.
In Rome – Emperor NERO marries for the second time, to Poppaea Sabina, ex-wife of Marcus Salvius Otho.
A great earthquake damages cities in Campania, including Pompeii.
In Asia – The Parthians invade Armenia and lay siege to Tigranocerta. The city is well-fortified and garrisoned by the Romans. The assault fails and king Vologases I retreats. Instead, he makes preparations to invade Syria.
GNAEUS DOMITIUS CORBULO strengthens the Roman fortifications on the Euphrates frontier. He builds a strong flotilla of ships equipped with catapults and a wooden bridge across the river, which allows him to establish a foothold on the Parthian shore.
Battle of Rhandeia: The Roman army (two legions) is defeated by the Parthians under king Tiridates I. Roman commander PAETUS surrenders and withdraws his disheveled army to Syria.
Emperor NERO achieves a notable peace accord with the Parthian empire, which lasts fifty years until TRAJAN's invasion of Armenia.
Caesarea, Palestine – Jews gather to protest against systematic discrimination against them, clash with local Greek citizens and a riot breaks out. Roman Governor (Procurator) MARCUS ANTONIUS FELIX (himself a Greek) responds with extreme repression against the Jews using the army. Over a number of days many Jews are killed and their property plundered.
This causes such controversy that an enquiry is heard in Rome before Emperor NERO who finds in favour of the Greeks and the Governor is declared not guilty. (Jos. Jewish War, Book 2.266).
The Apostle PAUl leaves Rome...
Pompeii, the city at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, is heavily damaged by a strong earthquake. Fearing an eruption of the volcano, many of the 20,000 inhabitants leave their homes in a panicked flight.
the Roman Empire – VESPASIAN becomes governor of the Roman province of Africa.
In Jerusalem – The Temple remodeling is now completed.
Yosef Ben Matityahuor in Greek Ιώσηπος, later known as TITUS FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS) travels to Rome as leader of a Jewish deputation seeking the release of some Jewish priests. Their release is obtained with the help of POPPAEA, NERO's wife.
c.March: In Rome – The apostle PAUL returns from Nicopolis (Titus 3:12) to Rome, meets among other with the apostle PETER, and then continues on his way to Spain.
Palestine – Jewish Zealots (nationalists) begin hostage taking.
First official persecution
of Christians in Rome
July 18: In Rome – Emperor NERO burns the city (at least the people suspect so), destroying ten of its 14 boroughs which clears the way for his building program, and –
c.September-October: NERO subsequently lays the blame on the Christians to allay suspicions:
"...a vast multitude were convicted, not so much of the crime of incendiarism as of hatred of the human race. And in their deaths they were made the subjects of sport; for they were wrapped in the hides of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set on fire, and when day declined, were burned to serve for nocturnal lights." (Tacitus XV.44).
The apostle PETER is crucified (I Clement V).
In the Roman Empire – Phoenicia becomes part of Syria.
In Judaea – GESSIUS FLORUS becomes governor, arising from his wife's friendship with the wife of NERO. (According to Josephus, his violent and corrupt rule is a major contributor to the Jewish rebellion of the next year).
• MATTHIAS (son of THEOPHILUS) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
PHILIP the Evangelist migrates, with his four daughters, from Caesarea in Judaea to Hieropolis in the Phrygian region of proconsular Asia.
JOHN the Apostle migrates from Jerusalem in Judaea to Ephesus in the Roman province of Asia.
Re. Philip, see Polycrates and Proclus in Eusebius' Church History 3.31.3, 4; cf. 3.39.9.
Rome – Emperor NERO Caesar kicks his pregnant wife POPPAEA SABINA to death.
• PHANAS (son of SAMUEL) is Jewish High Priest in Jerusalem.
Christian Evacuation of Jerusalem
and district. (exact date uncertain)
The Christians of Jerusalem are reported by Eusebius (EH 3.5.3) to now vacate the city in obedience to their Lord's command, alerted by a revelation from God to their leaders, and cross the Jordan to Pella in the Decapolis in northern Perea, which is ruled by king HEROD AGRIPPA II (before whom Paul had witnessed in 60 AD) and who gives them safe asylum.
As Jesus Christ had
previously warned them
(Luke 21:20-21).
May: In Caesarea – Governor GESSIUS FLORUS (under pressure from Rome) sends his soldiers to Jerusalem to confiscate gold from the Temple treasury in the claim that the Judaea owes the Roman Imperial treasury arrears of 40 talents of gold.
Jerusalem – His troops confiscate 17 talents of gold (435 kilograms/nearly 1000 pounds) from the Temple treasury (Baker 2006:252), causing a widespread violent reaction. FLORUS rushes to Jerusalem with an infantry and a cavalry unit to restore order. On arrival in the city he is publicly mocked by the populace, and so sets up a dais in a public space for an open-air tribunal of those who had mocked him.
priest JOSEPHUS and High Priest HANAN publicly apologise to FLORUS and try, in vain, to calm the angry Jerusalem populace. In response FLORUS sends in his cavalry who kill over 3000 people and plunder houses. The instigators of Jerusalem's resistance to Rome are crucified.
Protests continue and two more military cohorts are brought in from Caesarea. Many of the people are clubbed to death in the suppression, which swings public sentiment more fully into support for the Jewish Zealot party.
August: In Palestine – The extreme Zealots, the Jewish Sicari ('dagger men') of MENAHEM, attack Masada, seize weapons, and march against the Roman garrison in Jerusalem.
In Jerusalem – The Roman garrison is routed.
22: In Rome – Emperor NERO creates the legion I Italica.
Jewish War begins.
Halley's Comet is visible.
Rome – The apostle PAUL is arrested (2 Tim.4:6-8), tried and then beheaded.
Roman Governor
of Syria GAIUS CESTIUS GALLUS marches his troops into Judaea in an attempt to restore calm. En route he conquers Beit She'arim in the Jezreel Valley and proceeds along the coast before turning toward Jerusalem.
17: GALLUS arrives with his troops at Jerusalem, takes control of its undefended northern suburb, and attacks the Temple mount controlled by the Zealots. Heavy fighting ensues.
23: GALLUS inexplicably withdraws his troops from Judaea, but is ambushed near Beth-horon and looses almost an entire legion (about 6,000 soldiers), at the hands of ELEAZAR BEN SIMON. This Jewish victory is reported as a divine miracle and sign. HANAN, the Jewish High Priest, takes charge of preparing for the war against Rome, and appoints JOSEPHUS to head the command in Galilee.
'The greatest defeat of regular Roman forces by the people of an established province in all Roman history.' (Baker 2006:255).
December: In Galilee – JOSEPHUS, together with priests JOAZAR and JUDAS, is sent to Galilee to collect weapons and coordinate Jewish revolutionary activities, restraining them Galilean Jews from expending their energy separately on the civil wars that had characterized the region since the revolt and up to the defeat of Cestius, and to keep them peaceful, "as parts hadn't yet revolted [against] Rome". Rebellious Jewish cities were already conducting their own battles against local 'enemies', not only against Greeks but also against other Jewish cities for regional domination.
Remember: Christ's seven-times-worse prediction of Israel (Matt.12:45).
January: In Galilee – JOSEPHUS is left in sole command and begins fortifications.
February: Roman General VESPASIAN is appointed by NERO to the command against the Jewish rebellion.
Jewish faction fighting worsens.
• PHINEAS of Habta becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
Roman troops occupy Galilee:
"Galilee became a scene of fire and blood from end to end; it was spared no misery and no calamity; the one refuge for the hunted inhabitants was in the cities fortified by Josephus".
(Josephus The Jewish War 3.4.1 63).
the Jordan-Dead/Salt Sea Valley – The Jewish Sicari (extreme Zealots) of Masada massacre the Jews of Engedi on Passover Eve.
July: VESPASIAN forces JOSEPHUS (Jewish priest, and military leader in Galilee) and his troops to surrender at Jotapata. JOSEPHUS and a number of his soldiers go into hiding.
JOSEPHUS and one of his soldiers surrender to the Roman forces, after the others commit suicide.
JOSEPHUS predicts that VESPASIAN will become emperor. During his imprisonment JOSEPHUS becomes very friendly with VESPASIAN and takes his family name (FLAVIUS) as his own. (JOSEPHUS' writings later become a main historical source for this period).
September: 6,000 of the strongest young Jewish men captured by VESPASIAN are dispatched from Tiberius to Greece to help dig Caesar NERO's canal through the Isthmus of Corinth (Jewish War 3:540).
Jewish Zealots slaughter
the Gentile population of Pella.
Europe – Roman Governor GAIUS IULIUS VINDEX (of a noble Gaulish family of Aquitania given senatorial status under Claudius) in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis rises in revolt against the tax policy of NERO.
Nationalist Jews murder their priests.
A Sabbath Year
Rabbinic Year 3829
In Jerusalem – Jewish Zealots cut the throats of the high priests (Josephus War.7.8) so as to use the Temple as a military fortress.
In Galilee – JOHN of GISCALA/GISCHALA (Yohanan ben Levi) who leads the defence of Giscala against the Romans under TITUS, when called on to surrender persuades TITUS to not enter the city that day as it was the Jewish Sabbath. Out of respect TITUS waits and JOHN escapes to Jerusalem, where he stirs of nationalist sentiment to fight Rome –
"John [Giscala]...went about among all the people, and persuaded them to go to war, by the hopes he gave them. He affirmed that the affairs of the Romans were in a weak condition, and extolled his own power. He also jested upon the ignorance of the unskillful, as if those Romans, although they should take to themselves wings, could never fly over the wall of Jerusalem, who found such great difficulties in taking the villages of Galilee, and had broken their engines of war against their walls. These harangues of John's corrupted a great part of the [Jewish] young men, and puffed them up for the war." (Josephus Jewish War, IV).
of Alexandria writes his pesuasive letter (later known in the New Testament as 'Hebrews') to a Jewish Christian synagogue in Rome in the aftermath of PETER's martyrdom (c.October 64) and that of PAUL (late 66), and the massacre of Gentile Christians in that city (c.October 64).
Jerusalem – ANANUS BEN ANANUS (who had ordered the stoning to death of JAMES THE JUST, leader of the Jerusalem Christians; see 62 AD) who had been removed from High Priest office by the Roman governor as a consequence of the anger of the people over the killing, now incites the people to rise against the Zealots (nationalist party) who were extracting money from the people and using the Temple as their military base.
JOHN of GISCALA, pretending to be 'negotiating reconciliation' between these two Jewish parties, advises the Zealots to invites the Idumeans to invade Jerusalem on the side of the Zealots. The Idumeans invade and slaughter many Jews.
Jewish shekel struck by the rebels reading in old Hebrew script 'Shekel, Israel. Year 3'
Jewish rebel-coin struck 68/69 AD,
reading: 'Shekel, Israel. Year 3'
in old Hebrew script.
March: In Gallia Lugdunensis (in France) – Governor GAIUS JULIUS VINDEX rebels against the tax policies of Emperor NERO and calls upon Governor SERVIUS SULPICIUS GALBA of Hispania Tarraconensis (Mediterranean Spain) to declare himself emperor in opposition to Nero.
In Palestine –
Qumran settlement is abandoned and occupied by the Roman military.
In Rome – The Senate sentences the emperor NERO to death for his crimes, but he flees to a suburban villa.
8: The Roman Senate accepts SERVIUS SULPICIUS GALBA as emperor. GALBA becomes Roman emperor, but refuses to financially reward the armies that supported his appointment..
9: In Rome – NERO Caesar commits suicide four miles outside Rome (he is deserted by the Praetorian Guard and then stabs himself in the throat, thus ending the Julio-Claudian line of emperors), and the people of Rome celebrate.
In Judaea – Roman General VESPASIAN temporarily suspends his military campaign awaiting news of the appointment of the new emperor in Rome.
Year of the Four Emperors:
January 15: In Rome – Emperor GALBA is decapitated; MARCUS SALVIUS OTHO is declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard.
In Judaea, Palestine – A vicious three-way civil war erupts within Jerusalem which destroys almost all the grain supplies (put aside for the siege), and much of the Temple. (Matyszak, p.209/10).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
April 14: In Italy – OTHO's army is comprehensively defeated at Cremona.
April 16: OTHO commits suicide; aristocratic VITELLIUS becomes Roman Emperor, supported by the Roman army of the Rhine in Germany.
Emperor Vespasian, bust in British Museum, London.
In Jerusalem, Palestine – the Zealots slaughter anyone found outside its walls; on suspicion of attempted defection.
Replacement Theology Nonsense
The teaching in some churches, that the 42-month Tribulation prophesied in Daniel and Revelation, was fulfilled in this Roman attack on Jerusalem, and that the 'Hebrews' are now the Christians in prophecy, is total hogwash (to compliment it).
See: Terminal Sequence
July 9: In Judaea, Palestine – The Roman legions of Judaea declare VESPASIAN emperor of Rome (Baker 2006:273).
General VESPASIAN leaves his military command in the hands of his son TITUS and travels to Rome via Alexandria to first secure Egypt.
October 1: In Rome – Emperor VITELLIUS bans all astrologers from the city.
In Italy – The Roman Legions from the Danube, led by MARCUS ANTONIUS PRIMUS, return to oppose those supporting VITELLIUS as emperor, which include the Eastern Legions under the governor of Syria GAIUS LICINIUS MUCIANUS.
The two opposing armies meet at Cremona and after a bloody conflict the supporters of VESPASIAN win.
In Rome – The brother of VESPASIAN, FLAVIUS SABINUS, spearheads a rebellion against VITELLIUS before the armies of PRIMUS and MUCIANUS can join him, but fails and he takes refuge with his supporters on the Capitoline hill. The temple of Jupiter is burned in the conflict and SABINUS and his supporters are hauled before VITELLIUS and executed (Baker 2006:274).
19: Rome is burnt in the civil war between VITELLIUS and VESPASIAN.
20: VITELLIUS is found hiding in a doorkeeper's lodge, the door blocked by a bed and mattress. He is hauled half-naked into the Forum, publicly tortured, decapitated and thrown into the Tiber river.
21: Civil wars in the Roman empire end with VESPASIAN becoming recognised as emperor while still in Egypt.
He frees Jewish priest JOSEPHUS (who had predicted him becoming emperor) to return to Palestine with the emperor's son, TITUS, who is to command the military siege of Jerusalem (Jos. War IV.622–629). TITUS is instructed to now secure an immediate victory in Judaea to help unify the empire (Baker 2006:274).
Israel Year 1519 70
March: Jerusalem – The Roman army of the fifth, tenth, twelfth, and fifteen legions arrive, dig a trench and build a 7 kilometre (4½ miles) earth wall entirely around the city punctuated by 13 forts, in three days. Anyone caught trying to escape is crucified, atop this earth wall, facing the city.
Within the city the Jewish rebel groups of JOHN of GISCHALA, SIMON BEN GIORAS, and ELEAZAR BEN SIMON
enthusiastically prepare to defend the city.
  Seige of Jerusalem
painted by
David Roberts,
remember – In 30 AD/CE, Jesus had wept over this city and prophetically addressed it regarding God's coming judgment upon it:
"...For the days will come upon you [Jerusalem],
when your enemies will set up a barricade around you and surround you and hem you in on every side
and tear you down to the ground, you and your children within you.
And they will not leave one stone upon another in you, because you did not know the time of your visitation" (Luke 19:41-44; see Daniel 9:24).
The Hidden Time
Jerusalem falls and its Temple burns.
According to Josephus, eyewitness, Jewish priest and historian, Israel's temple is burnt on the same day in the same month as it was burnt by the Babylonians (Josephus, War, b. vi. c. 4.), a coincidence which emphasizes the common factor – the resolute judgment of God upon Israel.

May 25: 
The third wall of Jerusalem is breached by the Roman army.
May 30: 
The second wall of Jerusalem is breached.
c. June 16: 
All-out attack is launched on the towers north of HEROD's palace and the fortress of Antonia. The defenders set fire to siege engines and fend off the attack.
July 20: 
Romans renew their attack. Fortress of Antonia is captured and burned.
August 6: 
The perpetual Sacrifice in the Temple ceases! (Although, Schaff gives July 17)
August 15-17: 
Porticoes of the Temple are burnt. Jewish priest JOSEPHUS reports many casulaties resulted from the burning because they had been encouraged by a Jewish false prophet to stay there and wait for God's sign of deliverance –
"A false prophet was the occasion of these people's destruction, who had made a public proclamation in the city that very day, that God commanded them to get upon the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. Now there was then a great number of false prophets suborned by the tyrants [the Jewish nationalist leaders] to impose on the people, who denounced this to them, that they should wait for deliverance from God; and this was in order to keep them from deserting, and that they might be buoyed up above fear and care by such hopes." (Josephus Wars 6:5:2).
c. August 28: 
(according to Gibbon, by the Jews themselves, but more likely by the Roman soldiers during looting).
August 30: 
Romans capture the Lower City. SIMON and JOHN flee with survivors to the Upper City, and call for talks.
Roman General TITUS takes his stand on the wall linking the Temple with the Upper City and addresses the Jewish rebels –
"You were incited against the Romans by Roman kindness.
First we gave you the land to occupy and set over you kings of your own race; then we upheld the laws of your fathers, and allowed you complete control of your internal and external affairs; above all, we permitted you to raise taxes for God and to collect offerings, and we neither discouraged nor interfered with those who brought them – so that you could grow richer to our detriment and prepare at our expense to make war on us! Then, enjoying such advantages, you flung your abundance at the heads of those who furnished it, and like beasts you bit the hand that fed you! ...[When my father came into the country] he ravaged Galilee and the outlying districts, giving you time to come to your senses. But you took generosity for weakness, and our gentleness only served to increase your audacity... Most unwillingly I brought engines to bear on your walls. My soldiers, ever thirsting for your blood, I held in leash. After every victory, as if it was a defeat, I appealed to you for an armistice... After all that, you disgusting people, do you now invite me to a conference?"
(as reported by Josephus Jewish War, Book VI, 333ff).
Titus, son of Vespasian, bust in British Museum, London.

Arch of Titus, Rome showing Temple loot in triumphal procession; photo 2008.
A looted Temple candelabra
in Rome's victory parade
along the Via Sacra
shown on the Arch of Titus.

(Photo: March 2008, Rome).
in spite of God's promise to the Jews through the prophet Isaiah –
  "I will make you as a light for the nations [Gentiles], that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth" (Isaiah 49:6).
But instead: "as it is written, 'The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you'." (Romans 2:24).
reverse of Judaea Capta sestertius
'Judaea Capta'
sestertius reverse 71 AD

Upper City and HEROD'S palace captured.
TITUS' Roman troops demolish City and Temple after a siege of 134 days.
Jerusalem is occupied by the Roman Tenth Legion but Jews continue to live among the ruins.
TITUS allows Jewish priest and historian, JOSEPHUS, to have the 'holy scrolls' (the master copies) from the Temple.
Josephus, an eyewitness, claims that during the siege 1,100,000 people are killed and 97,000 sold as slaves. But the majority were not residents of Jerusalem as many had come to the city to offer the Jewish Passover sacrifice in family/friendship groups before the Roman army sealed the city's perimeter (Jewish War, Book VI, 9.3).
October 24: 
TITUS celebrates his brother DOMITIAN's birthday in Caesarea by setting 2,500 Jews to fight with wild animals in its huge amphitheatre.
"Jerusalem ...was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation." (Josephus, Jewish War, Book VII, 1.1) .
Emperor VESPASIAN insists that the Temple Tax paid by Jews must now be re-directed to the temples of Jupiter Capitolinus.
Judaea – VETTULENUS CERIALIS becomes Roman procurator/governor.
The Pharisee YOCHANAN BEN ZAKKAI is granted permission by Rome, as a non participant in the insurrection, to establish a religious school at Jamnia (Jabneh/Yavneh/Usha) for study and prayer. He gives precedence to the teachings of Hillel over those of Shammai. (See 136 AD).
[In 1871, Heinrich Graetz postulated a 'Council of Jamnia' to explain canonization of the Old Testament books known as the Writings (Ketubim) of the Jewish Holy Scriptures (T'nach), on the lines of a synod. But during the 1960s, this hypothesis was shown by J. Lewis, S.Z. Leiman, and others, to be totally without foundation.
Remember: before 30 AD, the Lord Jesus had Himself referred to the Hebrew canon's tripartite structure at that time
(Luke 24:44, where Psalms is the first book of the Writings) as being a known and accepted form long before Jamnia.]
Jamnia Synod Myth
invented in 1871 AD in an attempt to explain the canonization of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiates, Song.
In Rome – Panic strikes Rome as adverse winds delay grain shipments from Africa and Egypt, producing a bread shortage. (Ships laden with wheat from North Africa sail 300 miles to Rome's port of Ostia in 3 days, and the 1,000 mile voyage from Alexandria averages 13 days. The vessels often carry 1,000 tons each to provide the city with 8,000 tons per week it normally consumes.)
In Rome – Emperor VESPASIAN issues a sestertius in celebration of the conquest of Judaea, shown as a woman weeping under a palm tree (see left margin).
TITUS (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) is awarded with a triumph, accompanied by his father Emperor VESPASIAN and his brother Titus Flavius Domitian. In the parade are Jewish prisoners and treasures of the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah. The leader of the Zealots, SIMON BAR GIORA, is lashed and strangled in the Forum.
(VESPASIAN later sends more troops to the Danube frontier and fortifies it against the raids of the Dacians and Roxolani) into Moesia (See: 85 AD).
In Britain – Its Roman military administration establishes Eboracum, the only town north of the Humber river, which after the later Viking invasion becomes known as Yorkvik (York).
In the Roman Empire – Mithraism ('Mysteries of the Persians') begins to spread throughout the Empire.
In Palestine – Roman General SILVA moves to end resistance against Rome and lays siege to mount Masada with a ten to fifteen thousand strong army, builds a wall around the base of the mountain and eight siege camps to prevent escape by the besieged Jews.
Flavian Roman Emperor VESPASIAN founds the city of Flavia Neapolis (modern Nablus) over the Samaritan city of Mabartha ("the passage") located between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim, 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) west of the Biblical city of Shechem which was destroyed by the Romans.
JUDE, the brother of James, commonly called Thaddeus, is reportedly crucified at Edessa.
Judaea – LUCILIUS BASSUS becomes Roman procurator/governor.
Sicarii murder-suicide 73
After a two year siege the Roman army prepares to break through the defence walls of Masada overlooking the Dead Sea.
April 15: At Masada – the Romans under general SILVA break through the defences of the last Jewish rebels.
April 16, Morning: At Masada – The organised mass suicide/mutual execution of 966 Jewish Sicarii in groups of ten under ELEAZAR BEN YAIR is discovered. (See 67 AD). Only two women and five children, who hide from the Zealot Sicarii massacre in a water conduit, survive.
Egypt – The Jewish temple at Leontopolis' is forced to close by LUPUS, governor of Alexandria, on Caesar's orders, after 228 years of service.
SIMON, surnamed Zelotes (one of Christ's twelve foundation apostles), reportedly dies by crucifixion in Britain after having preached in that country and in Mauritania, Africa.
In Rome – Temple of Peace, also known as the Forum of Vespasian, is built. The temple celebrates the conquest of Jerusalem (in 70AD) and houses a menorah/seven-branch gold candelabra from Jerusalem's destroyed Temple.
In Britain – FRONTINUS begins his conquest of Wales/Cambria. Legio II Augusta is moved to the border of the River Usk.
Judaea – SALVIENUS becomes Roman procurator/governor.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Rome – HADRIAN (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) the future Emperor of Rome is born.
In Greece – Corinth in Achaia, Greece, is devastated by an earthquake.
See: World Weather
79 June 24: Emperor VESPASIAN dies, TITUS becomes Roman Emperor.
August 24, 25: In Italy – Mount Vesuvius erupts destroying the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae a popular resort for wealthy Romans, changing the course of the Sarno River and raising the sea beach.
of what we know of the event we owe to Pliny the Younger, who described it in a letter to the Roman historian Tacitus. According to the account, in the early afternoon that day, Plinyís mother told his uncle, Pliny the Elder, that "a cloud which appeared of a very unusual size and shape" was approaching.
This bustling Roman city of Pompeii in southern Italy is famously destroyed and buried beneath ash in AD 79 when Mount Vesuvius erupted spectacularly on August 24th. Around 2,000 people perished within the city and it remained buried under tons of ash, rock and pumice until its sprawling ruins were rediscovered in 1748. It is Europe’s richest archaeological site.Preserved by the volcanic ash and debris, the city remained incredibly intact and has helped archaeologists learn a great deal about Roman society and everyday life. The site is enormous – you could spend days exploring its streets and buildings (villas, baths, gardens, temples, brothels, and amphitheater) – and the wealth of artifacts, mosaics, statues and frescoes that survived despite the cataclysmic event is astounding. It's thought between 12,000 and 15,000 people lived here.
The brooding form of Mount Vesuvius looms over the Bay of Naples and has erupted many times since AD 79. But it was the AD 79 eruption that was the most disastrous. As well as Pompeii, it also completely decimated the small coastal town of Herculaneum, which was discovered buried under layers of rock at the western base of the mountain. The people of Herculaneum suffered a similar dreadful fate to Pompeii but they faced a massive pyroclastic surge that cascaded down Vesuviusís slopes. As the town was entombed beneath a layer of lava it was better preserved than Pompeii and its compact size makes it easier to explore in a day.
The eerie feeling is inescapable as you wander its ancient streets and wonder at the fate of those who left it too late to flee.
A Jew writes Book IV of the 'Sibylline Oracles' (of pretended prophecy) to 'prove' that God destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum to judge Rome for the massacre of Jews in the Judean War with Rome.
The victims of this catastrophe are principally innocent civilians.
So to associate Godís name with this catastrophe is blasphemous for above all, God is just.
'Sibylline Oracles'
In Rome – The celebratory opening of the great Flavian Amphitheatre (Coliseum) over a hundred days with the sacrifice of about 5,000 wild animals. It is built with Jewish slave-labour and funded by the gold and silver looted from their Jerusalem Temple (reputedly 50 tons of gold). It seats 70,000 people, but its construction is only finally complete by 82 AD/CE.
Nicknamed 'Coliseum' because it is built next the Colossus statue of NERO.
The Great Persecution of Christians by Roman emperor DOMITIAN.
He rigorously enforces his father VESPASIAN's redirection of Jewish Temple Tax to Jupiter Capitolinus.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Moesia (south of the Danube river) –
The Dacians cross the frozen Danube under DECEBALUS ('Brave Heart'), pillaging the land, and destroying farms and forts, who also becomes king of Dacia in the place of DOURAS.
Moesia's provincial governor OPPIUS SABINUS is killed and the outnumbered Roman troops take defensive positions to await reinforcements. Roman reinforcements arrive under General CORNELIUS FUSCUS, accompanied by (bi-sexual) Roman emperor DOMITIAN who spends his time living decadently in its cities.
Dacia (north of the Danube) – Roman General FUSCUS invades Dacia, is killed, and his Fifth 'Alaudae' Legion is soundly defeated. The Roman defeat by the Dacians inspires a revolt against Rome by Pannonia, north of Dalmatia.
The Dacians had built a sohphisticated miltary defence complex in their Orastie Mountains.
In Judaea – POMPEIUS LONGINUS becomes Roman procurator/governor.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Probable date on which JOHN, in a Roman prison on the island of Patmos in the Agean Sea, receives the visions contained in the Book of Revelation.
Regarding Jesus as heir
of the kingdom of God,
in John's world, a
valid legal will required
Seven Seals, from –
• the Testator,
• Five Witnesses: and
Familae Emptor (Executor),
so giving seven-seals
on one thread
, all
needing to be broken
to begin opening the
Testamentary Scroll*
(Roman Private Law,
Kaser 1968:292,
hence his focus on
the 7-sealed Scroll as
central metaphor
of his Revelation.
(*the codex form of
hinged pages was
only developed in
the 2nd century)
On visiting
John in the Patmos prison, the church messengers (ἄγγελος) from the seven congregations within the geographic area of John before his imprisonment, each receive a special written address from Christ by the pen of John when they expose themselves to risk of arrest by daring to visit him in the Roman prison (hence Christ introductory word of their special protection in His "right hand" Revelation 1:20, which would not apply to 'angels' as it has been commonly misinterpreted).
(from it's
'7' also represented 'complete'/'whole'/'all')
Letter:    The Local Churches   The Warnings / Encouragements
1.   Ephesus congregation   " have abandoned the love you had at first"
2.   Smyrna congregation   "Do not fear what you are about to suffer."
3.   Pergamum congregation   "...repent. If not, I will come to you soon and war against them with the sword of My mouth."
4.   Thyatira congregation   "...hold fast what you have until I come"
5.   Sardis congregation   "Wake up, and strengthen what remains and is about to die"
6.   Philadelphia congregation    "I have set before you an open door, which no one is able to shut"
7.   Laodicea congregation   "...because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of My mouth."
In each of these seven letters (later grouped in John's post-imprisonment compilation of the Revelation) Christ calls on those in each congregation who are hearing Him to "...hear what the Spirit says to the churches [plural]", the assemblies/congregations of Christians. And in particular, the phrase "Behold, I stand at the door and knock", so often used by preachers to invite an individual to come to Christ, is actually addressed only to the local church in Loadicea: that is, Christ is effectively outside and was inviting individual Christians in that church to enter into fellowship with Him to make a local difference.
See: Revelation Text & Summary Commentary
Death of Emperor DOMITIAN.
A century later, CLEMENT of Alexandria (c.150–215), writes of this –
"For when, on the tyrant’s death, he [John the apostle] returned to Ephesus from the isle of Patmos, he went away, being invited, to the contiguous territories of the nations, here to appoint overseers [pastors/bishops], there to set in order whole churches [congregations], there to ordain such as were marked out by the Spirit." (Clement, 'Who is the rich man that shall be saved?' XLII).
The apostle/evangelist John returns to Ephesus from the prison on Roman Patmos.
After his
release from the Roman Patmos prison, John edits his own record of the visions received in prison into one book which is known today in our New Testament as 'Revelation'.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
January 28: In Rome – TRAJAN (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus) becomes emperor.
Israel Year 1549 c.100
In Palestine – Patriarch GAMALIEL II (great-grandson of HILLEL and grandson of GAMALIEL I) succeeds BEN ZAKKAI as Jewish leader (patriarch) recognized by Rome.
Judaism finalizes
its rejection of Christianity
and curses its adherents!

Patriarch GAMALIEL II –
Re-unites the Jews after their loss of the Temple,
Regulates a prayer ritual in the place of the sacrificial worship,
Revises the principal prayer ('amida) of 18 benedictions as the obligation of every Jew to recite three times daily, and adds a prayer against heretics directed at Jewish Christians (Birkat haMinim), thus excommunicating those holding to the understanding of the T'nakh/Old Testament as taught by Jesus and His followers.
"May apostates have no hope and may the kingdom of impertinence be uprooted in our day. May the Nozrim and Minim [i.e. Christians] disappear in the twinkling of an eye. May they be removed from the book of the living and not be inscribed among the just. Bless you, Lord, you who cast down the proud."
(as found in the Geniza of the Cairo synagogue).
Whether this anathema was implemented in all synagogues in the Diaspora is doubtful as many Jewish Christians continued to attend their synagogues.
dictatorial manner toward all dissent found expression in his excommunication of his own brother-in-law, Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, from the Jewish community.
He ends the division of rabbis between the schools of HILLEL and SHAMMAI by ruling in favour of HILLEL. A procedure for the ordination of rabbis (semichah) is also established.
Parthian (Persian) empire appoints an "Exiliarch" (as head of Jews in Exile) who claims more direct Davidic descent than GAMALIEL II.
In Rome
A loaf of bread and a glass of wine each cost a ¼ sesterce; and, according to graffiti at Pompeii, a prostitute charges ½ a sesterce. Entrance to the public baths costs 1 sesterce; Roman soldiers earn 1,200 sesterce per year; and a casual labourer earns about 2-3 sesterces a day, when he has work.
A charity scheme to support poor children pays between 10 and 12 sesterces a month. (Speller 2002:226-227).
Emperor TRAJAN launches two brutal wars against the Dacians (north of the river Danube) which amounts to a genocide, and establishes colonies of Roman citizens in their territory (known today as Romania). He uses the war plunder on building the new harbour at Ostia, the port of Rome, expansion of the Circus Maximus to seat 150,000 and commemorates his victory on a column in Rome which bears his name in celebration of the genocide.
northern Britain – A Roman Vindolanda garrison military borracks is constructed south of the later site of Hadrian’s Wall near Hexham, Northumberland.
Israel Year 1560 since Exodus 111
Emperor TRAJAN orders the execution of any person who confesses to being a Christian.
Some time between 111 and 114 he writes in reply to PLINY, governor of Pontus and Bithynia (in Asia Minor), concerning a new problem –
"You observed proper procedure, my dear Pliny, in sifting the cases of those who had been denounced to you as Christians. For it is not possible to lay down any general rule to serve as a kind of fixed standard. They are not to be sought out; if they are denounced and proved guilty, they are to be punished, with this reservation, that whoever denies that he is a Christian and really proves it – that is, by worshiping our gods – even though he was under suspicion in the past, shall obtain pardon through repentance. But anonymously posted accusations ought to have no place in any prosecution. For this is both a dangerous kind of precedent and out of keeping with the spirit of our age."
Trajan's letter is in response to Pliny's query to him, after Pliny had had two church deaconesses tortured to find out what crimes Christians were guilty of and discovered only 'depraved, excessive superstition'. (Baker 2006:313).
This is the time of which Christ had warned the congregations through John in the Revelation.
An Israel Jubilee Year c.112
See Leviticus 25. The Jews abandon the Jubilee Year as its celebration is based on their covenant relationship to the land of Palestine.
JUSTIN MARTYR, Christian Apologist, is born in Flavia Neapolis (modern Nablus), a city of Samaria.
Emperor TRAJAN marches east with his army to conquer Armenia and northern Mesopotamia.
Jewish populations in Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, and Mesopotamia revolt against Rome under Cyrenian Jewish messiah LUKUAS-ANDREAS. Christian Jews refuse to join their rebellion.
TRAJAN suppresses the revolt but Jewish populations of North Africa are greatly reduced. In Cyrenaica alone 220,000 non-Jews are reported to have died in the Jewish rebellion. It is only prevented in Palestine by the harsh measures of governor LUSIUS QUIETUS.
the fulfilling of the prophecy of Jesus, concerning Israel after His time, using the exorcism metaphor –
"When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person, it passes through waterless places seeking rest, but finds none. Then it says, 'I will return to my house from which I came.' And when it comes, it finds the house empty, swept, and put in order.
Then it goes and brings with it seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they enter and dwell there,
and the last state of that person is worse than the first.
So also will it be with this evil generation/nation."
Matthew 12:43-45.
Emperor TRAJAN annexes Mesopotamia to Rome and adds it to the province of Arabia Petraea.
Terrible earthquakes wrack Antioch in Syria. TRAJAN restores the city.
In Cyrenaica (North Africa), in Egypt and in Cyprus – Jews led or inspired by a LUKUAS/ANDREAS, who calls himself "king" (according to Eusebius of Caesarea) destroy many temples, including those to Hecate, Jupiter, Apollo, Artemis, and Isis, as well as many civil structures as symbols of Rome (the Caesareum, the basilica, and the thermae). The Greek and Roman population in many cities are exterminated.
"By this outbreak Libya was depopulated to such an extent that a few years later new colonies had to be established there" (source: Eusebius, "Chronicle" from the Armenian, fourteenth year of Hadrian).
In Egypt –
False Jewish messiah LUKUAS burns the city of Alexandria.
In North Africa – Jewish rebels massacre 220,000 in Cyrene, and a very great multitude in Egypt. (Dion Cassius, History. lxviii. p.1145).

stone commemorating rebuilding the bathhouse in Cyrene after 'tumulto Iudaico' Inscription on one of the bathhouses of Cyrene,
commemorating how the city was
rebuilt after the tumulto Iudaico,
the disorders/riots caused by the Jews
In Cyprus – Jews led by ARTEMION take control of the island and massacre 240,000 non-Jews.
In Cyprus – A law is passed after the Jewish revolt of ARTEMION that no Jew should set foot on Cyprus, and that, if cast there by shipwreck, he should suffer death, but Jewish residence on the island continues.
In Palestine – The Rabbis of Palestine forbid Jewish fathers to teach their sons Greek (the international language of their time).
August: Emperor TRAJAN dies at Selinus (Gazipasa) in Cilicia (the first emperor to die outside of Rome).
HADRIAN (Roman Governor of Syria) becomes emperor by adoption, through documents signed by TRAJAN's wife PLOTINA and his niece MATIDIA (mother-in-law of HADRIAN).
August 11: In Antioch the Syrian capital – HADRIAN is inaugurated as 14th Emperor of Rome (the first to wear a beard). HADRIAN was known to have been sexually involved with the young men of TRAJAN's imperial entourage; a practice which was acceptable to Rome as long as they are young.
The number of Roman citizens in the empire at this time is estimated at 70 million (Baker 2006:303).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
January: In Rome – Emperor HADRIAN's birthday is celebrated with the killing of 100 lions and 100 lionesses, imported from Syria and the Roman East.
wild extravagance
Tibur (modern Tivoli) outside Rome, Italy – Emperor HADRIAN has a 120 hectares (250 acres) villa constructed (Villa Adriana in Italian) with a circumference of 3km on land belonging to his wife on a small plain extending from the slope of the Tiburine Hills. His villa includes a network of underground tunnels as large as a city where oxen drag wagons of luxury goods and slaves serve. The main tunnel running for half a mile to a 700 metre circular spur was probably used to turn carts/wagons around. A river nearby was navigable so his villa could be reached by boat. Apparently he disliked the imperial palace on the Palatine Hill in Rome, leading to the construction of this retreat. The postal service keeps him in contact with Rome 29km (18 miles) away (about a day's horse ride).

Tunnels under Hadrian's villa
Emperor HADRIAN inspects and strengthens forts, ramparts and watchtowers along the Rhine frontier of the Empire.
In Britain – Emperor HADRIAN inspects and strengthens Roman military control, and authorizes construction of the military wall to dominate the landscape from the North Sea to the Irish Sea, with a fortified gateway every Roman mile (~1.5 kilometres) and an observation turret every third (0.5 kilometres). The Roman military occupation force consist of a wide range of cultures, such as a naval auxiliary unit from Mesopotamia which is stationed at what is today known as South Shields. (the wall's forts are occupied by Roman troops until around AD400).

Map of the Roman Empire under Hadrian (ruled 117Ė138 AD), showing trade routes, roads, towns,
and the location of the Scythae Basilaei ("Royal Scyths") along the north shore of the Black Sea
(Click map above for full scale).
Book V of the 'Sibylline Oracles' is written by a Jew.
Emperor HADRIAN writes in answer to CAIUS MINUCIUS FUNDANUS, Proconsul of the Roman Province of Asia, regarding accusations against those called Christians:
"I received the letter written to me by your predecessor, the most illustrious Serenius Granianus, and it is not my pleasure to pass by without inquiry the matter referred to me, lest both the innocent should be disturbed, and an opportunity for plunder afforded to slanderous informers. Now, if our subjects of the Provinces are able to sustain by evidence this their petition against the Christians, so as to accuse them before a Court of Justice, I have no objection to their taking this course. But I do not allow them to use mere clamorous demands and outcries for this purpose. For it is much more equitable, if any one wishes to accuse them, for you to take cognizance of the matters laid to their charge. If therefore any one accuses and proves that the aforesaid men do anything contrary to the Laws, you will also determine their punishments in accordance with their offences. You will on the other hand, by Hercules, take particular care that if any one demand a writ of accusation against any of these Christians, merely for the sake of libeling them, you proceed against that man with heavier penalties, in accordance with his heinous guilt."
Quoted in Eusebius, HE, 4.9.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Emperor Hadrian, bust in British Museum, London.
Israel Year 1579

Jews banned from Jerusalem
In Palestine – Emperor HADRIAN arrives in Jerusalem (on his way to Egypt), grants a generous rebuilding on the old ruins (as a Roman garrison city) and after 135 renames the city – Aelia Capitolina. Jews are banned from the city except on one day a year.
The image of a boar (from the crest of one of the resident legions) is carved into the city's gateway, an unclean animal in Jewish tradition. Taxes are raised, and circumcision may have been banned (The Romans may have confused it with castration).
September: In Egypt – Emperor HADRIAN's homosexual lover, ANTINOUS, dies and his deification is verified by the sighting of a 'new' star (probably a supernova near Aquila).
(Hadrian is profoundly affected by the death of Antinous and there are suspicions that Hadrian sacrificed him in a ritual in Egypt. (More probably Antinous was killed by accident in a magical ritual of rebirth).
Hadrian builds a city in his honour, Antinopolis, on the bank of the Nile where he died (with a temple for his worship as a new god).
In Judaea – SIMEON BAR-KOSEBA sees the 'new' star (supernova), changes his name to BAR-KOKHBA ('son of a star'), and claims Jewish Messiahship (sometimes spelled Kochba).
Winter: False Jewish messiah SIMEON BAR-KOKHBA recruits an army of about 400,000 men in Judaea.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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