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Kings Antiochus V to Herod the Great

– data subject to continuing refinement –
King ANTIOCHUS V reoccupies Jerusalem.
He appoints a legitimate Jewish High Priest, and grants religious freedom,
but JUDAS MACCABEUS (of the priestly Hasmonean family) unfortunately continues the war.
The Hasidim (Assideans, 'Pious Ones', early Pharisees) appropriately disapprove of the nationalist war.
Israel Year 1286
JUDAS appeals to Rome for support but they support ANTIOCHUS.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
JUDAS' brother ELEAZAR dies under a Syrian war elephant at the battle of Beth-Zechariah and the Jewish forces retreat to the Gophna Hills.
Jewish high priest MENELAUS is executed by the Syrians (Governor of Southern Syria, BACCHIDES), who appoint ALCIMUS (JAKIM/JOACHIM) as Jewish high priest.
High Priest ALCIMUS executes sixty Hasidim and this Jewish sect turns against him.
Beginning of the fratricidal wars among the ruling Seleucids of Syria.
JUDAS MACCABBAEUS dies at the battle of Eleasa, and is buried by his brothers in the family tomb at Modiin.
He is succeeded by his brother JONATHAN as the ruler of Judah/Judaea.
An alliance is signed with Rome recognising JONATHAN's Hasmonean rule over an independent Israel.
Syrian Governor, BACCHIDES, builds a series of fortresses around Jerusalem to strengthen Seleucid control of the city.
Israel Year 1290 159
ALCIMUS, the last Hellenizing High Priest of Israel, dies of a stroke (or perhaps of poisoning with aconitine, an ingredient of the monkshood plant, Aconitum napellus L.; see similar death-symptoms of Roman emperor Claudius in AD/CE 54).
The high priesthood remains officially 'vacant' for 7 years until 152 BC,
but some priest would have officiated as high priest each year on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur).
This person may have been the priest later called the "Teacher of Righteousness" by the Jewish separatist Qumran community of Essenes in the Jordan valley south of Jericho.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Seleucid/Syrian military intervention in the Jerusalem Temple state finally ends.
The 'Teacher of Righteousness' becomes a leader among the Hasidim, and prophet to their ultra-conservative Jewish community of Essenes.
Deposed legitimate High Priest ONIAS IV (חוֹנִיּוֹ), son of Onias III, obtains PTOLEMY PHILOMETOR of Egypt's support for a Jewish temple at Leontopolis, in the Heliopolis district of Egypt, on the basis of Isaiah 19:18-19. This temple is in Jewish use until 73 AD (Jos. Wars 7.10).
Hasmonean JONATHAN MACCABAEUS appoints himself (although not a Zadokite) as High Priest (152-143), backed by ALEXANDER BALAS the new Seleucid ruler.
Probable withdrawal of 'Teacher of Righteousness' to Qumran in the Jordan valley.
Essene Qumran community begins
High Priest JONATHAN is recognised by King ALEXANDER BALAS as governor of Judaea.
Later his brother SIMON MACCABAEUS is appointed military governor of Palestine by general TRYPHON to gain support for ANTIOCHUS VI.
In Iberia (Portugal/Spain) – Roman General GALBA promises resettlement to the Lusitanian tribe on condition of disarmament, after which he then massacres them. A shepherd, VIRIATHUS, escapes and becomes a successful resistance leader destroying every Roman army sent against him for the next decade.
The Romans,
under Servius Sulpicius Galba (an ancestor of the Roman emperor of 69 AD/CE), propose a whole-scale resettlement of the Lusitanians (of modern Portugal) due to the agricultural poverty of their soil. At an agreed date, unarmed, they gather in three groups. Galba orders the Roman army to surround each group in turn and massacre everyone, men, women, and chidren.
A Lusitanian shepherd
Viriathus escapes and begins a vendetta against Rome, and gathers support to attack the Romans from mountain strongholds (see 147 BC/BCE).
In Rome – CATO the Elder describes Carthaginians as untrustworthy, degenerate and effeminate child-sacrificers, ending every speech of his with "Delenda est Carthago" ('Carthage must be wiped out').
In North Africa – Rome begins the destruction of Carthage. (See Infant Sacrifice).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In North Africa – Rome continues its total destruction of Carthage.
In Palestine – High Priest JONATHAN attacks the forces of of APPOLONIUS, the General of DEMETRIUS II (the new Syrian king), defeating them between Jabneh and Ashdod. This is the first military action of a regular Jewish army outside the Jewish national state.
High Priest JONATHAN thus emerges as the strongest military power in Palestine.
He builds a fortress in the Judean desert and names it Masada.
Lusitanians (modern Portugal) launch a full invasion of neighbouring Turdetania.
In Greece – the Achaean League makes war with Rome inevitable by declaring war on its ally Sparta.
Corinth City is burnt in this conflict. (It is thought that the origination of the highly prized 'Corinthian Bronze' occured when a metal store accidentally burned creating a beautiful alloy of copper, silver and gold, during this conflict. Hence its name.
The Nicanor Gate of the Jerusalem Temple, between the Women's Court and the Court of the Israelites, was clad in this alloy in Alexandria, Egypt).
'Corinthian Bronze'
The Roman provinces of Macedon and Africa are formed, and Greece becomes a Roman protectorate,.
In Palestine – JONATHAN MACCABAEUS is appointed general and joint ruler within the Seleucid kingdom by ANTIOCHUS VI (ALEXANDER BALAS' son).
The Syrian rival king, DEMETRIUS II attacks JONATHAN unexpectedly but he defeats the Syrians.
JONATHAN is arrested by the Syrian general TRYPHON, after his thousand-man escort is massacred in Ptolemais.
SIMON MACCABAEUS becomes High Priest (143-134) and ruler in Jerusalem.
JONATHAN is executed at Bascama by TRYPHON, and is buried with great pomp in the family tomb at Modiin.
Letters of sympathy come from Rome and Sparta.
Israel begins
its flirtation with Rome.
SIMON MACCABAEUS sends a gift to confirm alliance with Rome.
DEMETRIUS II grants Judaea all previous privileges and freedom from tax and tribute, to gain support against his rebel general TRYPHON.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Israel Year 1308 141
In Palestine –The Syrian garrison in Jerusalem is starved into submission and removed.
SIMON demolishes their fortress overlooking the Temple from the south, and even the hill on which it stood.
Bronze tablets on pillars are set up on Mount Zion declaring SIMON –
"leader and high priest forever, until a trustworthy prophet arise".
In Palestine –SIMON's right to rule is confirmed as hereditary. The Hasmonean dynasty is thereby founded.
Jewish proselytising rebuked.

In Rome – Its Jews are charged by the praetor (civil administrator) with attempting to contaminate Roman morals with their own religion (attempts at conversion to Judaism), and compelled to return to their own homes.
Roman support given.  
In Palestine – A delegation of High Priest SIMEON/SIMON returns from Rome armed with its Senate's order to the kings of Egypt, Syria, Cappadocia and Phrygia, not to harm the land of the Jews.
Twenty-sixth Jubilee Year 135
Jewish High Priest SIMON is murdered by his son-in-law.
JOHN HYRCANUS I becomes Jewish leader and High Priest (rules 135-105).
Alternate date from the withdrawal of the ultra-conservative Hasidim to the Qumran settlement in the Jordan valley (as a religious withdrawal).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year of the land.
Jerusalem conquered

ANTIOCHUS VII (SIDETES) leads a siege of Jerusalem, conquers the city, razes its walls,
and makes JOHN HYRCANUS I his vassal and Jewish high priest but with religious autonomy.
Forced conversions   JOHN HYRCANUS I forcibly circumcises conquered peoples, and is opposed by the Hasidim (early Pharisees).
In Rome – TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS is elected as Plebian Tribune and commences agrarian reform, in which the government would buy the land possessed by the owners of large estates in excess of 500 acres. This land would then be distributed to soldiers upon completion of their service to solve two problems: increase the number of men that could be levied for military service, and also take care of homeless war veterans whose farms had been taken over by wealthy land owners while they were in foreign service. His Lex Sempronia agraria reform law is approved in spite of strong opposition from the Senate but not implemented due to lack of funds.
In Pergamum – Its King ATTALUS dies and leaves his entire fortune to Rome, which GRACCHUS now hopes to use for his Roman agrarian reform (see 132 BC).
The Roman province of Asia is formed.
In Rome – TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS is murdered by his Senatorial opponents of reform (see 133 BC).
Roman Democracy Declines
The Seleucid kingdom ceases to exist.
The Parthian Empire swallows up Babylonia.
Conquests by Jewish king JOHN HYRCANUS in Transjordan ensure his control of the ancient 'royal road' from Damascus to Elath on the gulf of Aqaba.
He also attacks the Samaritan temple to God (Yahweh/Jaḥveh) on Mount Gerizim and burns it to the ground. (In 2012 AD/CE, archaeologist Yitzhak Magen finds a "burn layer" where this temple once stood along with arrow heads, swords, daggers and lead missiles for slings used by the attacking Jewish forces.)
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Forced conversions to Judaism 125
HYRCANUS conquers Idumea (Edom) and forcibly converts its people to Judaism.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
After wars in South Gaul, Gallia Narbonensis (still called Provence "the Province" in France) is formed to safeguard the route to Spain, which had hitherto been adequately protected by the powerful Greek city of Marseilles.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Forced conversions to Judaism 114-111
JOHN HYRCANUS conquers the coastal plain (Josephus Ant.9.1), forcibly converting its populations to Judaism.
Jewish king JOHN HYRCANUS (and their High Priest) destroys the city of Samaria.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
ARISTOBULUS I becomes king and High Priest, conquers Galilee, and forcibly converts its population to Judaism.
ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (YANNAI) is Jewish king and High Priest, and completes his conquest of the land of Israel.
He is strongly resisted by the Pharisees whom he cruelly suppresses.
The Hasmonean (Maccabean) state reach its apogee.
Roman republic's expanding influence now stretches around the Mediterranean:
In Palestine – Jewish king ALEXANDER JANNAEUS' (YANNAI's) campaigns against Gaza and its colonies.
 In Rome
A law is passed that Roman citizens should be able to –
"conduct, without peril, whatever business they desire" (according to a copy found at Delphi in Greece).
A copy of this law is also sent by messengers of Rhodes to the kings of Cyrene, Egypt, Cyprus, and Syria, stating that –
no pirate is to "use the kingdom, land, or territory of any Roman ally as a base of operation. No official or garrison
will harbour pirates and should be considered zealous collaborators for the safety of all". (See: 67 BC, Aristobulus).

Rome promotes free-enterprise
Rome ends piracy in
the eastern Mediterranean
JASON of Cyrene's Jewish history (summarized as the book of 'II Maccabees') is written glorifying the Jerusalem Temple and attacking Jewish Hellenizers.
The book of 'III Maccabees' is written as a propaganda piece to counteract those Jews who sought to win citizenship in Alexandria, Egypt.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
ALEXANDER JANNAEUS' campaigns against the Nabatean kingdom (Negev).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Italy – Revolt of most cities against Rome.
Israel Year 1361 88
In Italy – Rome suppresses the revolt but extends franchise to most Italians.
  In Palestine – The Jewish Pharisees encourage Seleucid king DEMETRIUS III (of Syria) to invade Judaea. After an initial victory, he fails.  
The Atrocity In
revenge Hasmonean Jewish king ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (YANNAI) crucifies eight hundred Pharisees, while their wives and children are murdered at their feet. (Josephus, Antiquities 13.14.2).
FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS reports of the Jewish king that –
'Nay, his rage was grown so extravagant, that his barbarity proceeded to the degree of impiety; for when he had ordered eight hundred to be hung upon crosses in the midst of the city, he had the throats of their wives and children cut before their eyes; and these executions he saw as he was drinking and lying down with his concubines.'  BJ Book 1, chapter 4.6.
Twenty-seventh Jubilee Year 86
A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
ALEXANDER JANNAEUS' (YANNAI's) second campaign in Transjordan results in the conquest of most Greek towns and invasion of the Golan.
In Greece – An earthquake damages the temple of the oracle at Delphi.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
North of the Danube – BUREBISTA becomes leader of the Dacians. He re-organizes their army, begins extending the frontiers of Dacia, subjugates the Bastarnae and the Boii (another Germanic tribe), and the Greek colonies around the Black Sea, eventually as far as Odessus (Odessa). The Dacian frontier eventually extends northward to the Carpathian Mountains, and eastward as far as the river Dniester (the present border between Moldavia and Ukraine).
In Jerusalem – Queen SALOME ALEXANDRA, widow of JANNAEUS, and friend of the Pharisees rules (on their behalf).
Her son, HYRCANUS II, is now the Jewish High Priest.
In Britain – The Belgic invasion of south-eastern Britain begins.
In Rome – Slave war with Spartacus. Spartacus had fled with 80 other slaves from the gladiator school (Ludus) in Capua. Eventually Spartacus' slave-army consisted of 70,000 men. His army arrived in the town of Thurii from where he had planned to flee to Sicily, but Roman army commander Marcus Licinius Crassus out-manoeuvres him, and about 6,000 of his men are crucified..
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
In Thrace – Apollonia (in modern Bulgaria) is conquered by the Romans and a lighthouse is built on the island.
In Rome – First consulship of POMPEY and CRASSUS.
Near Histria (Greek Black Sea colony) – The army of Dacia defeats a Roman army under ANTONIUS HYBRIDA.
First clash between Dacia and Rome.
In Jerusalem – Queen SALOME ALEXANDRA dies and the Jewish state is plunged into a period of civil war between her heirs HYCANUS II and ARISTOBULUS II.
HYRCANUS II is deposed by his brother ARISTOBULUS, and he (prompted by Antipater the Idumean) appeals to King Aretas of the Nabatean Arabs for aid.
ARISTOBULUS II is now Jewish king and High Priest of Israel, and is also accused of complicity in piracy on the seas.
Israel Year 1384 65
In Jerusalem – ONIAS the Just is stoned to death by the Jewish people because he would not take sides in prayer as they (under HYRCANUS II) besiege ARISTOBULUS in the Jerusalem Temple.
Hence later, after many years of Jewish-civil-war, God eventually gives Israel to Judaised Edomite HEROD I (the Great) as their king.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
General Pompey, bust in British Museum, London.
General Pompey with the hair-style of Alexander the Great.
Roman general POMPEY orders a truce between HYRCANUS II and ARISTOBULUS II, and appoints HYRCANUS as Jewish ruler.
Israel Year 1386 63
In Palestine – General POMPEY conquers the Jerusalem Temple after a siege of three months.
He takes ARISTOBULUS prisoner, enters the Holy of Holies, orders the continuance of Sacrifices
He makes Judaea a Roman province, and deprives the Hasmonean dynasty of its royal title.
HYRCANUS II is reinstated as Jewish High Priest but without royal title (63-40).
Samaria (Hebrew: Shomron) is now annexed to the Roman province of Syria.
In Rome – The consulship of CICERO.

Daniel's fourth
(hybrid combination of the forms
of government demonstrated
under three earlier empires
in their rule over
is now politically
(Daniel 7:23).
The City of Rome
with its famous Seven Hills:
1.   Palatine
2.   Capitoline
3.   Quirinal
4.   Viminal
5.   Esquiline
6.   Caelian
7.   Aventine

Emperor Vespasian, 1st Century AD,
struck a coin representing Rome as a
woman sitting on seven hills
hence this symbol used by the apostle John later in his book of Revelation would have been then so understood.
  Rome's Seven Hills
GABINIUS, the first Roman governor of Judaea, puts down the rebellion of ALEXANDER (son of ARISTOBULUS).
He appoints HYRCANUS II to care for the Temple, and divides the Jews under five administrative councils, located at – Jerusalem, Gadara, Amathus, Jericho, and Sepphoris in Galilee. (See 57 BC).
In Rome – The consulship of CICERO, and coalition of POMPEY, CAESAR and CRASSUS..
In Rome – The first consulship of CAESAR.
In Gaul (modern France) CAESAR's Gallic Wars.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
In Rome – CICERO is exiled.
In Rome – CICERO is recalled.
Roman Proconsul GABINIUS [CABINEUS] of Syria (proconsul 57-55 BC) establishes five regional Synhedria or Councils to regulate the internal affairs of the Jews, one of which was in Jerusalem.
Messianic proof-texts from cave 4 Qumran - Cick to enlarge
Q4 messianic proof-texts
expressing some mid-1st cent.
BC/BCE Jewish expectations.
ARISTOBULUS escapes from Rome and raises a Jewish army, but is crushed by GABINIUS.
In the Arabian desert – A Roman army led by MARCUS LICINIUS CRASSUS is annihilated by the superior tactics of the Parthian army which captures the Roman standards for display in its capital. (See 19 BC).
In Britain – Roman invasion by CAESAR.
CRASSUS DIVES, second Roman governor of Judaea, plunders the Jewish Temple treasury.
In Gaul – Lutecia is devastated by fire, site of ancient Paris of the Parisii Celts on the old British tin route to North Italy.
Germanic invasions force the Helvetii to migrate southwards.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
The city fathers of Sardis grant Jews permission for the collection of money on behalf of the Temple authorities in Jerusalem and to live according to their own laws.
Roman Consul LENTULUS grants the request of Jews in Asia to be exempt from military service as it would violate their sabbath code. Jews consequently escape involvement in the Roman civil war.
Julius Caesar
lays down his command of Gaul.
Edomite ANTIPATER, founder of the Herodian dynasty, is appointed governor of Judaea by JULIUS CAESAR.
ANTIPATER's sons, PHASAEL and HEROD, rule Jerusalem and Galilee respectively.
708 Ab Urbe Condita
from founding of Rome
JULIUS CAESAR's calendar reforms, changing the year to 365.25 days of twelve months to take effect in 45 BC.
The year 46 B.C. thus lasts 445 days and later becomes known as the "final year of confusion."
709 AUC 45
The Julian Calendar begins with March, spring time, as God had commanded for Israel at their Exodus from Egypt.
Julian Calendar begins
The Battle of Carrhae goes down as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome, decides to invade Parthia without the consent of the Senate. Crassus is confident that the superior numerical strength of the Roman army would result in an easy defeat of the Parthian Empire. But the Parthian army showed immense resilience under the command of General Surena and won the battle.

Plaque at site of Julius Caesar's grave
Caesar's grave-plaque, Rome.
"Here lies the body of Caesar who died on 15th March 44BC and was buried here at the Forum of the ancient Roman Empire. The people of Rome collected anything wooden that could be found within the Forum and lit a bonfire which they watched through the night while it burned. Upon this site they erected a temple and built an altar for Caesar who was honoured by the people as a god."
Appiano de Bella, 104 AD

'Pale Death with impartial tread beats at the poor man's cottage door and at the palaces of kings.'
Horace (65–8 BC), Odes.
JULIUS CAESAR orders the settlement and rebuilding of Corinth as a Latin colony by freed Roman slaves.
February: JULIUS CAESAR is made dictator for life by the Roman Senate.
15: JULIUS CAESAR is assassinated in Rome and is mourned by the Jews of the city as a benefactor of their people.
In Rome – The population of the city itself in this first century BC now reaches one million inhabitants (Baker 2006:23).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Judaea, Palestine – ANTIPATER is assassinated.
His son HEROD, of an Arab mother, suppresses the revolt.
Ephesus – CORNELIUS DOLABELLA reminds Ephesus that Jews are exempt from military duty and enjoy freedom of religion.
Laodicea city, in which DONABELLA had subsequently shut himself up, is now captured by CASSIUS, and so DOLABELLA commands one of his own soldiers to kill him.
December 7: Marcus Tullius CICERO is assassinated
Parthian armies invade Palestine with ANTIGONUS (son of ARISTOLBULUS II of the Jewish Hasmonian dynasty).
The Jews force HEROD to open Jerusalem's gates to the Parthians.
• ANTIGONUS is made king and high priest, and high priest HYRCANUS II is maimed so that he can never serve in the Temple, and is exiled.
HEROD flees via Egypt to seek aid, ultimately from the Senate in Rome (leaving his family at Masada).
MARK ANTONY persuades the Roman Senate to appoint HEROD as king of the Jews.
Winter: In Galilee – HEROD I (the Great) establishes his rule by military force.
Winter: HEROD's siege of Jerusalem begins, while he marries Hasmonean princess MARIAMNE in Samaria to give him a Jewish claim to rule, after banishing his wife and three year old son.
Twenty-eighth Jubilee
and Israel Year 1412
Summer: Jerusalem is captured by HEROD I and many of its citizens are slaughtered.
ANTIGONUS is executed by order of MARK ANTONY, thus ending the Hasmonean dynasty.
HANANEL (not a Hasmonean) becomes High Priest in Jerusalem under HEROD.
This is a Jewish Sabbath Year – according to Jewish historian FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (Joseph ben Matthias) which therefore assists our calculation of all others.
sea level is now about 2 metres (7 feet) below its present level.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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