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– data subject to continuing refinement –
The background of
ROME
"The Twelve Tables of ancient Rome are in many respects the foundation of the civil laws we have today ...To judge from the Twelve Tables, Rome in the mid fifth century BCE was an agricultural town, complex enough to recognise basic div­isions between slave and free and between different ranks of citizen and sophisticated enough to have devised some formal civic proce­dures to deal consistently with disputes, to regulate social and family relations and to impose some basic rules on such human activities as the disposal of the dead. But there is no evidence that it was more than that. ... What is more, there is hardly any mention of the world outside Rome -- beyond a couple of references to how particular rules applied to a hostis (a 'foreigner' or an 'enemy'; the same Latin word, significantly, can mean both) and one possible reference to sale into slavery 'in foreign country across the Tiber', as a punishment of last resort for debt. Maybe this collection had an intentionally internal rather than external focus. All the same, there is no hint in the Twelve Tables that this was a community putting a high priority on relations, whether of dominance, exploitation or friendship, beyond its locality." (SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome, by Mary Beard, 2015)
449
The Peace of Callias (Athenian politician) is agreed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Argos, and Persia, so bringing an end to the Persian wars, which allows Athens to deal with any threats from Corinth and Thebes.
(But Persia continues to meddle in Greek affairs over the next twenty years, and is to become instrumental in securing a Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War).
446
Chislev (November-December): In Susa – NEHEMIAH recives news of the broken down state of Jerusalem, and prays.
The Greeks gave Artaxerxes the surname Μακρόχειρ (Longimanus, 'Long-Hand').
 
Nehemiah 2:1.
445
March 13: A new moon begins the new month Nisan/Abib.
The Jerusalem Decree
March 16: ARTAXERXES (Ahasuerus/اردشیر یکم‎), king of Persia and second son of Xerxes, issues his decree for NEHEMIAH to rebuild the defences of Jerusalem in Judaea. This is the date from which the '70-weeks' prophecy of Daniel's 490-years (of 360-days each) is to be calculated (Dan.9:24).
Israel Year 1005 444
NEHEMIAH rebuilds Jerusalem's military defences in his first term as Jewish governor.
Nehemiah 3:1.
    ELIASHIB is High Priest in Jerusalem.
  443
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
  436
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
432-425
NEHEMIAH, in his second term, combats the evils that MALACHI rebuked.
The Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot) is properly celebrated under the leadership of EZRA and NEHEMIAH for the first time since JOSHUA son of NUN.
See: Nehemiah 8:17.
430
Summer: In Athen, Greece – A mass outbreak of disease hits the city, ravaging the city’s population over the next five years. In his History of the Peloponnesian War, the historian Thucydides, who witnessed the epidemic, described victims’ "violent heats in the head," "redness and inflammation in the eyes," and tongues and throats "becoming bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid breath." Patients would experience hot flashes so extreme, he wrote, that they "could not bear to have on [them] clothing or linen even of the very lightest description." In the later stages of infection, the disease would end with "violent ulceration" and diarrhea that left most too weak to survive.
 
 
(In 1994, when during excavations for a planned Athens metro station at Kerameikos, an ancient graveyard used from the early Bronze age through Roman times, the excavators uncover thousands of previously undiscovered tombs—including a set of seemingly hurried, unceremonious mass burials dating to 430 B.C., the year of the Plague of Athens. In 2000, archaeologists turned over three teeth found at the site to a University of Athens team led by Manolis Papagrigorakis, an orthodontist and professor of dentistry, for DNA testing. Examining the dental pulp found in the teeth, Papagrigorakis’ team ran tests for seven diseases that had previously been suggested by other scholars: plague, typhus, anthrax, tuberculosis, cowpox, cat-scratch disease, and typhoid fever. The only match they identified on all three teeth was with the pathogen for typhoid fever.)
Twentieth Jubilee Year 429
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
425/424
King ARTAXERXES of Persia dies.
  422
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  415
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  408
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  401
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  c.400
In Greece – ARISTOPHANES coins the verb korinthiazesthai 'to act like a Corinthian', i.e. to practice fornication.
  Here PLATO uses the expression korinthia koré ('a Corinthian girl') to mean a prostitute.
Corrupt Corinth
  396
In Northern Italy – The Etruscan city of Veii is sacked by the Romans.
  394
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  390
In Rome – the city is comquered, looted and occupied by the Gauls under BRENNUS, but withdraw fairly soon and Romes is left to grapple with enemies in the hills, the Volscians, the Sabines, the Aequi, and more formidable Smnites.
  387
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Twenty-first Jubilee Year 380
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  373
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  366
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  359
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  352
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  c.350
In Jerusalem – JADDUA becomes Jewish High Priest.
  345
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
343-341
In Rome – The First Samnite War (until 341).
  342
In Greece – About 5,000 citizens of Corinth emigrate to Syracuse because of the city's over population.
  340
In Italy – Rome declares war on the Latin League (until 338), its previous allies, defeats them.
(Two years later it dismantles the League).
  338
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
Rome's power in Italy grows
  In
Central Italy – The league of Latin city-states dissolves under Rome's victory over them.
Rome renames their cities municipiae and establishes its coloniae inside them; thereby ruling them as part of the Roman republic so that their residents are considered Roman colonists.
See:
A Biblical Structure of History
  336
In Macedon – PHILIP II is assassinated and his son ALEXANDER becomes king.
  333
Battle of Issus: ALEXANDER of Macedon leads the Greek city-states to defeat DARIUS of Persia.
  In
Jerusalem – A council of elders, called the gerousia, functions as a senate or supreme council of the Jews until 165 BC.
  332
ALEXANDER's siege and capture of Tyre, and occupation of Egypt.
  In
Palestine – Jerusalem is conquered by ALEXANDER the Great (reigned 333-323 BC). It becomes part of Hellenistic Egypt, but enjoys religious freedom.
See:
map of Alexander's Empire
Twenty-second Jubilee Year 331
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
   
October 1: Battle of Arbela (Gaugamela), the final defeat of DARIUS of Persia by ALEXANDER the Great.
  330
ALEXANDER the Great burns Susa city to the ground, the capital of the Persian Empire.
In contrast to
the Egyptians, the Greeks had been generally hairy and bearded until the rise of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), who initiated a longstanding clean-cut trend when he instructed his soldiers to remove all traces of the beard because of its potential to be grabbed in hand-to­-hand combat.
  c.330
On Mount Gerizim in Samaria – The Samaritan temple is built:
Samaritan temple complex on Mount Gerizim Photo of excavations in the Samaritan temple complex on Mount Gerizim.
At its peak it covered 100-acres and included living quarters for about 1,500 people.
  327
In Rome – The Second Samnite War (until 304).
  324
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  323
June: In Babylon – Death of ALEXANDER the Great, at age 32.
His empire is divided between Macedon, Egypt (Ptolemy), Syria (Seleucus) and Pergamum. (See 551 BC)
  321
ALEXANDER the Great is buried at Memphis in Egypt by PTOLEMY probably in the unused sarcophagus of Pharaoh NECTANEBO II (Egypt's last native ruler). (This empty sarcophagus is now in the British Museum.)
  c.320
In Jerusalem – ONIAS I becomes High Priest. He corresponds with King ARIUS of Sparta.
  317
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
312-281
SELEUCUS I (one of the generals of Alexander the Great) reigns over Seleucid (Syrian) empire.
  312
In Palestine – General PTOLEMY, ruler of Egypt, retreats before ANTIGONUS MONOPHTHALMOS ('one eyed'), dismantling fortresses and taking many prisoners from Jerusalem, Judaea, and Samaria, whom he settles in Egypt.
In Babylonia – General SELEUCUS stirs the east of the Macedonian empire against ANTIGONUS MONOPHTHALMOS.
  310
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
306-285
PTOLEMY I (one of the generals of Alexander the Great) rules Egypt.
  306
PTOLEMY I of Egypt is defeated in a naval engagement off Cyprus by DEMETRIUS the Poliorketes ('taker of towns'), with dozens of vessels sunk. (Source: Greek historian, Diodorus of Sicily). As a consequence PTOLEMY looses control of Cyprus for ten years.
Demetrios was the son of Antigonus Monophthalmos, a Macedonian nobleman who later ruled Asia Minor.
  303
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  301
In Ipsus, Asia Minor – General PTOLEMY, in alliance with Generals SELEUCUS and TELEMACHUS, with the help of SELEUCUS' Indian elephants for which he had traded the province of India, defeat ANTIGONUS MONOPHTHALMOS.
  298
In Rome – The Third Samnite War (until 290).
  296
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  c.290
In Jerusalem – SIMON I becomes High Priest.
  290
In Italy – Rome subjugates the Samnites south of Latium after three years of continuous conflict, bringing it's rule closer to the Greek colonies of South Italy, and is now mistress of central Italy, where she is knit together by outposts, colonies and roads. The conquet of the Samnites brings Rome into direct contact with the Greek cities of the south of Italy.
  289
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
285-247
In Egypt – PTOLEMY II ( Philadelphus) reigns.
All Jewish captives sold into slavery are now freed by him and their owners compensated (Josephus) and
gifts are sent to the Jerusalem Temple.
Septuagint Translation
of Holy Scripture.
Oldest existing manuscripts of the LXX include 2nd century BC fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy (Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957), and 1st century BC fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets (Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943).
He
later is reputed to have invited Jewish High Priest ELEAZAR (brother of the deceased SIMON) to send six elders from each of the twelve Jewish tribes to Alexandria to help provide a reliable translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (T'nach/Old Testament) into the international Greek of the day. (First century Jewish priest Josephus credits the royal librarian Demetrius Phalerius of Alexandria with this initiative).
This
translation eventually became known as the Septuagint (abbreviated as LXX) and later becomes the principal version used in synagogues of the Jewish Diaspora.
Internal evidences in the existing text of the Septuagint indicates that the translation took place over a period of about 100 years. (See 275 BC).
Twenty-third Jubilee Year 282
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
280-261
ANTIOCHUS I reigns over the Seleucid empire.
  280
In Italy – The king of Epirus over the Adriatic in northern Greece, PYRRHUS, invades Roman territory to the help the Greek city of Tarentum which had challenged Rome. In two bloody battles he defeats the Romans.
  279
In the Balkans – The invasion of the Gauls begins which continues into Greece.
Battle of Thermopylae
  275
In Italy – The Romans defeat PYRRHUS at Beneventum (near Naples) and expel his army, clearing the way to complete their conquest of Italy.
ELEAZAR becomes High Priest in Jerusalem.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  In
Egypt – Under PTOLEMY II – the Torah (Pentateuch or first five books of the Old Testament), begins to be translated into Greek (the Septuagint, or LXX, see 285-217 BC) for use of the Jewish communities outside Palestine.
 
  c.270
In Bithynia, Anatolia – Three tribes of Gauls, the Trocmi, Tolistobogii and Tectosages, migrate at the invitation of king Nicomedes I of Bithynia, to assist him militarily.
Galatia is later
named for them.
  268
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  265
Carthage (founded by Phoenicians c.800 BC) is the most significant power in the Mediterranean at this time.
  264
Rome begins its First Punic (Phoenician) War with Carthage in North Africa, arising from a regional conflict on Sicily (a Carthaginian province) between the towns of Messina and Syracuse, Rome siding with the former. In the years that follow, Rome realizes it must develop a navy to drive Carthage from Sicily; winning their first sea battle in 260 BC. (See 241 BC).
  261
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
261-246
ANTIOCHUS II reigns over the Seleucid dominions.
c.260
In Jerusalem – MANASSEH (uncle of Eleazar) becomes Jewish High Priest.
Zenon's memoirs, discovered at Philadelphia in the Fayum, are an important resource for Ptolemaic administration in Palestine.
260
In the Tyrhenian Sea north of Sicily – The naval battle of Mylae takes place between Rome and Carthage. Rome's victory is a turning point which allows the Romans to pursue HANNIBAL to Sardinia, where the Romans again destroy a large part of the Carthaginian fleet. At this point HANNIBALl is arrested by his own men back in Carthage and crucified for his 'incompetence'.
259-258
ZENON, procurement agent for APPOLLONIUS, Egypt's Minister of Finance under PTOLEMY, travels in Palestine: landing at Strato's Tower (Herod's Caesarea) traveling to Jerusalem, Jericho, Abila, Tyrus, Lacasa (Kisweh, near Damascus), Eeitha (Hit), Beth-anath, Cadasa, boarding Ptolemais (Acco) to return to Egypt.
  255
Seleucid king ANTIOCHUS II repudiates his queen LAODICE to marry BERENICE, sister of PTOLEMY III of Egypt, in a peace settlement as prophesied by Daniel.
"After some years they shall make an alliance, and [Berenice] the daughter of the king of the south [Ptolemy II] shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement. But she shall not retain the strength of her arm, and he and his arm shall not endure, but she shall be given up, and her attendants, he who fathered her, and he who supported her in those times."
Daniel 11:6.
  254
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
247-222
In Egypt – PTOLEMY III rules.
  247
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
246-226
SELEUCUS II reigns over Seleucid dominions.
  c.245
ONIAS II, son of SIMON 'The Just' (brother of Eleazar), becomes Jewish High Priest.
His neglect to pay taxes provokes king PTOLEMY (Euergetes) of Egypt.
JOSEPH, ONIAS' nephew, wards off punitive measures and wins authority to collect the king's taxes in Coele-Syria, and Phoenicia, Judea, and Samaria.
  241
March 10: Rome wins a decisive victory at sea over the Carthaginian fleet north of Sicily. (See 264).
  240
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  234
In Rome – Its adult male citizens now number 270,773 (Baker 2006:307).
Twenty-fourth Jubilee Year 233
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  229
In Iberia (Spain) – Carthaginian HASDRUBAL (brother of Hannibal) becomes commander.
  226
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
226-223
SELEUCUS III reigns over the Seleucid empire.
224
In Greece – Corinth trades itself to PHILIP V of Macedon (238-179 BC) in exchange for his aid against Sparta.
223-187
ANTIOCHUS III (the Great) reigns over the Seleucid empire.
222-205
In Egypt – PTOLEMY IV reigns.
  221
ANTIOCHUS III invades the valley of Lebanon but is stopped between Brocchoi and Gerrha at the fortifications erected by PTOLEMY IV's General THEODOTUS.
  c.220
SIMON II (the Just) becomes Jewish High Priest in Jerusalem.
  219
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Rome – LUCIUS AEMILLIUS PAULLUS I is consul; and the Second Punic (Phoenician) War begins (until 201).
ANTIOCHUS III captures Seleucia.
218-201
Rome is at War with Carthage (2nd Punic War).
  218
In Palestine – Seleucid ANTIOCHUS III (the Great) takes control of many Judaean cities west and east of the Jordan river, in reaction to Egypt's attempt to recover their Lebanese territory.
PTOLEMY IV's general THEODOTUS and his second in command PANETOLUS go over to ANTIOCHUS.
Spring:
In Iberia/Spain – Carthaginian General HANNIBAL (age c.30) sets out with 12,000 cavalry, 90,000 infantry, and 37 war elephants, on a 1600-kilometre journey through hostile territory over the Alps to attack Rome.
 
  217
The earlier revelation to Daniel from the Writing of Truth (Daniel 10:21) by the angel of God, given during Israel's exile from Palestine, now begins to be fulfilled –
"Then the king of the North [Antiochus III] shall come and throw up siegeworks and take a well-fortified city [Raphia]. And the forces of the South [Egypt] shall not stand, or even his best troops, for there shall be no strength to stand. But he who comes against him shall do as he wills, and none shall stand before him. And he shall stand in the glorious land [Palestine], with destruction in his hand."
Daniel 11:15-16.
Spring:
In Egypt – PTOLEMY IV mobilizes his army of seventy thousand soldiers, five thousand horsemen, and seventy-three war elephants, including locally recruited auxiliaries, to invade Palestine, but is stopped at Raphia in southern Palestine by ANTIOCHUS III with sixty-two thousand soldiers, six thousand horsemen, and 102 war elephants.
  216
In Rome – LUCIUS AEMILLIUS PAULLUS I and GAIUS TERENTIUS VARRO are consuls.
   
August 2: At Cannae, in northern Italy – Carthaginian HANNIBAL destroys the superior Roman force of about 87,000 Roman and Allied troops (under command of consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro) sent against him, killing 45,500 Roman and allied infantry, and 2700 cavalry, including 80 Roman senators (source: Livy). Roman allies in southern Italy defect to HANNIBAL.
  But
19-year-old Junior Magistrate PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO rallies the Roman troops and so the Roman Republic refuses to capitulate. (Baker 2006:55).
Rome saved by a teenager!
  212
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  205
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
 205-181
In Egypt – PTOLEMY V reigns.
  202
Zama, North Africa (c.120 kilometres from Carthage) – Roman General SCIPIO refuses terms of peace to HANNIBAL of Carthage. Some 20,000 Carthaginians and 1,500 Romans die, forcing the surrender of the Carthaginian fleet and its elephants, payment of 10,000 talents of silver in indemnity (245 tons), and agreement never to re-arm or declare war without permission from Rome.
Publius Cornelius Scipio 'Africanus'
Jewish
population world-wide estimated at being about 8 million.
  201
In Palestine – ANTIOCHUS III's army penetrates as far as Gaza which remains loyal to Ptolemy of Egypt although it eventually falls to the Seleucid kingdom.
  c.200-
Jews of the Diaspora begin to abandon the Aramaic language in favour of koine/international Greek.
North of the Danube – The Bastarnae tribe migrates from the Baltic region, bringing them into conflict with the Dardani and other tribes in the north Danube region.
In Antioch – The apocryphal book of Tobit is written to encourage wayward Diaspora Jews to return to the traditions of their fathers.
  200
PTOLEMY V of Egypt sends his general SCOPAS to take Judaea from ANTIOCHUS, and establish a garrison in Jerusalem.
   
The Sarmatians (Latin Sarmatae, Greek Sauromatae) defeat the Scythians (later regarded by Josephus as being the biblical Magog).
  198
In Palestine – This is a Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
ONIAS III is High Priest in Jerusalem.
   
Seleucid king ANTIOCHUS III of Syria defeats SCOPAS of Egypt (battle of Paneion), conquers Jerusalem for Greco-Syria, is welcomed by its inhabitants, and grants it even greater freedom the following year as a province of his empire.
 
  197
In Palestine – Judaea becomes a province of the Seleucid Empire ruled by the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great.
 
   
Rome declares war on Antigonid ruler PHILIP V of Macedon who had earlier allied himself with Carthage.
In Greece – Under TITUS QUINCTIUS FLAMINIUS the Roman army soundly defeat the Macedonians at Cynoscephalae in Thessaly, and allow PHILIP V to escape.
 
  This
victory marks the beginning of the transition of power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the successors of Alexander the Great to Rome.
 
  196
In Greece – ANTIOCHUS III crosses the Hellespont with his army and occupies Thrace.
 
  In
Egypt – The 'Rosetta Stone' (which later discovery in 1799 AD leads to the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics) is inscribed to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the rule of PTOLEMY V over Egypt.
It is today in the British Museum.
  192
Rome declares war on ANTIOCHUS III.
  191
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
In Greece – Seleucid king ANTIOCUS III is defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae.
  190
In Anatolia – Seleucid ANTIOCHUS III is decisively defeated by the Romans at Magnesia near Smyrna (in Asia Minor), they levy an annual fine on the Seleucid empire, and limit ANTIOCHUS III to his old territory.
  189
In Damascus, Syria – Since the third son of ANTIOCHUS III was not in direct line for the Seleucid throne, he is sent to Rome as a hostage after his father's defeat by the Romans.
187-175
SELEUCUS IV rules, sends a tax collector to Judaea (Dan.11:20) to help raise the fine to be paid to the Romans (1000 talents of gold per year).
  The
Hellenisation of Jews begins, but Zadokite high priest ONIAS III resists.
Twenty-fifth Jubilee Year 184
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
182-170
PTOLEMY VI reigns over Egypt.
  182
In Rome – AEMILLIUS PAULLUS II is consul.
  180
In North Iberia/Spain – The Roman army under TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS (Senior) subjugates the country to Rome.
  In
Rome – It is laid down that magistracies should be held in a definite order, and aminimum age for candidates is fixed.
 
  c.180
In Judaea, Palestine – A group of dissident Jews found a religious commune in the desert near the Dead/Salt Sea.
Qumran Commune
  177
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
  In
Sardinia – The Roman army under TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS (Senior) crushes an 80,000-strong rebellion against Rome.
 
175
In Damascus – ANTIOCHUS' (originally named Mithradates) older brother, SELEUCUS IV, secures his release from Rome shortly before being murdered by his own chief minister.
 
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
ANTIOCHUS IV EPIPHANES
Daniel's Antichrist Prototype
 
ANTIOCHUS avenges his brother's death and claims the throne instead of his nephew, DEMETRIUS (who is a 12-year-old hostage in Rome) as ANTIOCHUS IV 'EPIPHANES' (the Illustrious/Manifest) and so becomes king of the Seleucid empire.
Israel had been warned of this time –
"And at the latter end of their [Greek/Seleucid] kingdom, when the [Jewish] transgressors have reached their [moral] limit, a king of bold face, one who understands riddles [stratagems], shall arise. His power shall be great – but not by his own power; and he shall cause fearful destruction and shall succeed in what he does, and destroy mighty men and the people who are the saints. By his cunning he shall make deceit prosper under his hand, and in his own mind he shall become great. Without warning he shall destroy many. And he shall even rise up against the prince of princes [Jewish High Priest], and he shall be broken – but by no human hand."
(Daniel 8:23-25).
Antiochus IV prefigures the ultimate Antichrist in his treatment of Israel (Daniel 8:9; 11:25-27).
God only allows Anthiochus power when corruption in Israel reaches the limit of God's tolerance.
In
Jerusalem – High Priest ONIAS is deposed and replaced by his Hellenophile brother JOSHUA, who changes his name to JASON. He builds a Greek-style gymnasium in Jerusalem and introduces many Greek customs.
Israel Year 1277 172
The Romans now begin to work toward the breakup of the Achaean League of Greek city states. (See 146 BC).
Priest
MENELAUS bribes Seleucid king ANTIOCHUS IV 'EPIPHANES' to appoint him as High Priest in the place of JASON.
His first act is to seize the sacred gold vessels in the Temple stores in order to meet the bribe obligations he had incurred.
Because
of his ensuing unpopularity, MENELAUS now brings before the king an accusation against the people of Jerusalem, claiming that they are partisans of the Egyptians and persecute him only because he is opposed to their intrigues.
This accusation causes the execution of several Jews who, although they prove that MENELAUS and his brother LYSIMACHUS desecrated the Temple, they are nevertheless sentenced to death.
The priests
of Israel were meant to be the primary teachers of the written Law of the Lord (2 Chronicles 15:3) in terms of God's Covenant with Israel established at Mount Sinai. Although this function begins to be taken over later by those that eventually call themselves Pharisees, the priesthood had primary responsibility before God. This responsibility outweighed their ritual and sacrificial duties (Isaiah 1:10).
Yet,
from this time at least, the priesthood of Israel does not even understand the basic meaning of the written Law of the Lord.
For instance: in Israel's Temple –
• the number 'seven' in the seven branches of the lampstand/candlestick in the sanctuary, which takes its significance of 'complete' or 'whole' from the seven-day structure of the creation event in Genesis One, is now understood as representing the seven planets; and
• the 'twelve' loaves upon its table, which represented the twelve tribes of Israel in Covenant, are now understood as representing the twelve signs of the zodiac in the circle of the year. (Josephus Wars V.5.5).
 
  171
In Palestine – Legitimate High Priest ONIAS III is murdered (at instigation of Jewish priest MENELAUS), and the forced Hellenization of the Jewish people starts.
"Armies shall be utterly swept away before him and broken, even the prince of the covenant [Israel's High Priest]. And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully, and he shall become strong with a small people."
ONIAS IV (son of murdered ONIAS) is deposed as High Priest and flees to Alexandria in Egypt.
Daniel 11:22-23.
The prophesied
'2300-evenings-and-mornings' period now begins (See Daniel 8:14); a merciful prophecy that gives Israel's faithful a time-horizon to help their perseverance through this difficult time ahead.
See:
Seventhday Adventist
misrepresentation
   
In Rome – The Roman Republic declares war on PERSEUS of Macedon (son of Philip V) for his attempted domination of the Greek city states. (See June 168).
170-164
PTOLEMY VI and PTOLEMY VII reign jointly over Egypt.
  170
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
The guardians of underage King PTOLEMY VI of Egypt demand the return of Coele-Syria (the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon, but a term also often used for the area south of the river Eleutherus including Judaea)
ANTIOCHUS IV invades Egypt, defeating its army between Mount Cassius and Pelusium, and proclaiming himself its king at Memphis.
 
  169
ANTIOCHUS IV marches on Alexandria and besieges the city.
 
Ousted
Jewish high priest JASON, on a rumour of the death of ANTIOCHUS, attacks and conquers Jerusalem (except for the citadel, Acra) with the helps of the Tobiads, and massacres his opponents.
(High Priest MENELAUS whom Antiochus IV had appointed is forced to flee).
 
Before
the fall of Alexandria, on hearing of the attack of JASON, ANTIOCHUS IV turns back to Palestine, attacks Jerusalem and removes the Temple treasure.
 
   
ANTIOCHUS IV launches a preemptive strike against Egypt, conquering all but Alexandria and capturing King PTOLEMY, but to avoid alarming Rome, ANTIOCHUS allows PTOLEMY VI to continue ruling as a puppet-king.
(Upon ANTIOCHUS' withdrawal from Egypt, the city of Alexandria chooses one of Ptolemy's brothers as a new King (PTOLEMY VIII Euergetes). Instead of fighting a civil war between them, the Ptolemy brothers agree to rule Egypt jointly.)
 
  168
In Rome – AEMILLIUS PAULLUS II is consul.
June: At Pydna (northeast coast of Greece) – The Roman army under LUCIUS AEMILIUS PAULLUS wins a decisive victory over PERSEUS of Macedon, killing about 20,000 Macedonians and taking 11,000 prisoner. Rome now partitions Macedonia into four republics loyal to Rome.
6th Syrian War
  The
Romans having defeated ANTIOCHUS' ally (PERSEUS of Macedonia) demand his withdrawal from Egypt. He asks for time to consider and the Roman ambassador (GAIUS POPILLIUS LAENAS) draws a circle around ANTIOCHUS with his walking stick and demands a reply before he leave the circle. Humiliated, ANTIOCHUS IV agrees.
 
   
July 30: ANTIOCHUS withdraws his troops from Egypt in anger, marching north to Palestine.
 
In
Jerusalem – ANTIOCHUS IV 'EPIHANES' re-conquers the Jewish city (at the request of Jewish priest MENELAUS and reinstalls him), plunders and burns it.
 
December
25: ANTIOCHUS IV arrogantly –
1.   enters the Temple Sanctuary as Zeus incarnate;
2.   sets up and dedicates a statue of himself as 'Zeus Olympios' in its Holy of Holies;
3.   sacrifices a sow on its great altar to his own statue;
4.   sends the holy Temple Veil of the Holy of Holies as tribute to the temple of Zeus (45-foot-high ivory seated-statue by Phidias) at Olympia in Greece; and,
5.   builds a fortress overlooking the Temple area from the South to supervise temple use.
He forbids all Jewish religious practices, such as:
1. Observance of the Sabbath and of all traditional feasts;
2. All religious sacrifices;
3. Reading of the Law, and ordered the burning of all copies;
4. Circumcision.
Daniel's
Antichrist
prototype
Jerusalem
forfeits its previous privileges and is permanently garrisoned by Syrian/Seleucid soldiers.
(Beginning fulfillment of the prophecy of Daniel 8:11-14, 23-26).
 
   
The Samaritans receive ANTIOCHUS' permission to attribute their temple to Zeus (Jupiter Hellenius).
 
First
century AD Jewish priest-historian, Flavius Josephus, later writes of Antiochus –
   "So he left the temple bare, and took away the golden candlesticks, and the golden altar [of incense], and table [of shew-bread], and the altar [of burnt-offering]; and did not abstain from even the veils, which were made of fine linen and scarlet. He also emptied it of its secret treasures, and left nothing at all remaining; and by this means cast the Jews into great lamentation, for he forbade them to offer those daily sacrifices which they used to offer to God, according to the law. And when he had pillaged the whole city, some of the inhabitants he slew, and some he carried captive, together with their wives and children, so that the multitude of those captives that were taken alive amounted to about ten thousand. He also burnt down the finest buildings; and when he had overthrown the city walls, he built a citadel in the lower part of the city, for the place was high, and overlooked the temple; on which account he fortified it with high walls and towers, and put into it a garrison of Macedonians. However, in that citadel dwelt the impious and wicked part of the [Jewish] multitude, from whom it proved that the citizens suffered many and sore calamities.
   And when the king [Antiochus IV] had built an idol altar upon God's altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to adore those whom he took to be gods; and made them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and offer swine upon them every day.
   He also commanded them not to circumcise their sons, and threatened to punish any that should be found to have transgressed his injunction.
He also appointed overseers, who should compel them to do what he commanded. And indeed many Jews there were who complied with the king's commands, either voluntarily, or out of fear of the penalty that was denounced." (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews).
Note: there was no ark of the covenant to steal or it would have been mentioned.
 
Antiochus IV is Daniel's prototype of the still future Antichrist referred to later by Jesus in His Olivet prophecy.
Israel Year 1282 167
The elderly priest MATTATHIAS (great grandson of HASMON) in the village of Modein northwest of Jerusalem, raises the banner of revolt by attacking a Jew, about to sacrifice to the new gods, and killing the king's officer present.
He flees to the hills with his five sons –
1. JOHN GADDI  2. SIMON THASSI  3. JUDAS MACCABEUS 
4. ELEAZAR AVARON   5. JONATHAN APPHUS    
MATTATHIAS
attacks all degrees of Jewish collaborators with the same bitterness as he does the Syrian troops of ANTIOCHUS, engendering civil war in some Jewish communities.
 
 
Many join him in the hills, especially the Hasidim who refuse to fight on the Sabbath and promptly loose a thousand men in the conflict.
 
Taking advantage
of ANTIOCHUS' western problems, King MITHRIDATES I of Parthia attacks from the east and seizes the city of Herat, disrupting the direct trade route to India and so effectively splitting the Greek world established by Alexander's conquests into two.
 
 
Prophecy concerning
the Maccabee Wars
166
MATTATHIAS dies urging his sons to "show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the Covenant of our fathers" (1 Mac.2:50).
And so is fulfilled the Lord's prophecy through Zechariah to Israel –
"I will bend Judah as I bend My bow, and fill it with Ephraim.
I will rouse your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Greece, and make you [Zion] like a warrior's sword."
MATTATHIAS' third son JUDAS becomes leader of the guerrilla war.

Zechariah 9:13.
But sadly,
JUDAH/JUDAS sees himself as successor to JOSHUA and GIDEON, so leads his fighters in spiritual devotions, and justifies his massacres of non-combatants on the basis of JOSHUA's holocaust of certain Canaanite cities which God had commanded.
Israel Year 1284 165
December (Kislev 25): JUDAS 'MACCABEUS' cleanses and rededicates the Temple.
(The "2300 evenings and mornings" period of the Syrian-Greek oppression now ends! See Dan.8:14).
  This
event is celebrated annually in December at the Jewish festival of Chanukah.
  Yet
MENELAUS is still Jewish High Priest.
  164
News of the death of ANTIOCHUS IV (from disease) causes LYSIAS, his general, to offer peace to the Jews under Seleucid rule.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle


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