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Emperors Hadrian  to  Theodosius II

– subject to continuing refinement –
Autumn: SIMEON BAR-KOSEBA, 'prince of Israel', leads a carefully prepared revolt against Rome, after it becomes known that emperor HADRIAN is to build Roman temples in Jerusalem.
Second Jewish War
Chief Rabbi AKIBA BEN YOSEF (c.50–c.135 AD/CE, and described later in the Jewish Talmud as "Rosh la-Chachamim"/Head of all the Sages) now declares SIMEON to be the promised Messiah of Israel (Yer. Ta'anit, iv.68d) and calls him Bar-Cochba ("Son of a Star" from Numbers 24:17), thus inciting popular support and so helping to lead the Jewish people to their national destruction.
See also:
Jerusalem Talmud, Ta'anit 4:8.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbath Year for the land.
The Jewish planned rebellion against Rome now begins, with the expectation that Jews everywhere would join. Christian Jews refuse to join the rebellion.
In Athens, Greece – The temple of Zeus, begun originally in the 6th century BC, is completed and dedicated by Emperor HADRIAN, and a statue of HADRIAN is erected in the Theatre of Dionysius.
In Palestine – The Roman garrison of Judea of two legions, the VI Ferrata and the X Fretensis, under TINEIUS RUFUS, comes under such pressure that reinforcements are called from neighbouring territories:
II Gallica 
 – comes from Syria
XXII Deitoriana 
 – comes from Egypt
The legions, III Cyrenaica, III Gallica and IV Scythia, may also have been involved, putting at risk the stability of other provinces of Rome.
The Roman Tenth Legion is forced to leave Jerusalem to pursue BAR-KOSEBA's guerilla bands, whereupon the rebel BAR-KOSEBA occupies the city.
SIMEON BAR-KOSEBA re-institutes ritual sacrifice in Jerusalem and Qumran is occupied by his followers.
The rebels redistribute imperial estates among local Jewish communities and issue their own Hebrew coinage.
Military recruitment in Italy is urgently increased and even Roman sailors are transferred to the legions in Judea.
Winter: HADRIAN replaces RUFUS with JULIUS SEVERUS (Governor of Britain) as commander of his legions in Judea.
The 5,000 strong XXII Deitoriana Legion brought in from Egypt is almost wiped out by the Jewish rebels.
In Palestine – Eventually, under General SEXTUS JULIUS, the Roman army systematically wipes out 50 Jewish fortresses, and devastates 985 villages in Judea and Galilee. Burial of the dead is prohibited and the stench of putrefaction covers every battle site.
Disenchanted Jews begin renaming their leader BAR-KOZIBA ('son of disappointment').
July: BAR-KOSEBA is driven from Jerusalem and killed at his fortress at Bethar (which also houses the Jewish Sanhedrin) with all its inhabitants and refugees. Their bodies are left to rot and BAR-KOSEBA's head is paraded before the Roman commander and his troops.
The Jewish rebels are defeated and over 580,000 killed.
In the slave markets of Hebron and Gaza, captured Jews are sold for the price of a horse. (source: Dion Cassius 50.69, as quoted by Gibbon 1.XVI. Notes).
The Roman army had suffered such casualties that HADRIAN is not able to announce the usual victory formula to the Senate – "I am well and the army is well."
RUFUS TIMEIUS is appointed to rebuild Jerusalem as a modern Hellenic city.
is plowed over according to the ancient Roman rite of building a new city and rebuilt as Aelia Capitolina (from which all Jews are banned, including Christian Jews) on a grid plan (which still dominates the Old City today) with a magnificent temple to Jupiter Capitolinus (about where the Al Aksa Mosque stands today), theater, public baths, a pool dedicated to the Nymphs, and two marketplaces.
Tenth Legion's camp is constructed over Herod's palace on the highest point of the city.
HADRIAN has an arch constructed about 440 metres north of the city to commemorate his victory over BAR-KOSEBA.
Golgotha (where the Lord Jesus Christ was crucified) is covered by a temple to the goddess Aphrodite/Venus. (See: 326 AD).
Judaea's name is also changed to Syria Palaestina.
prohibits Jewish rabbinic ordination, public assembly, circumcision, and any religious regulation of the calendar.
All Jews are banned from the whole district of Judea (Galilee thus becomes the centre of Palestinian Jewry), resulting in confusion among Jews in later years over the precise location of the site of their Temple in Jerusalem.
SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL II (reigns c.135-c.175) succeeds his father (GAMALIEL II) as the recognized Jewish leader ('Patriarch') within the Roman empire. He moves the rabbinic academy to Gallilee. He is known for his ruling in Jewish texts on Sabbath law –
"Bundles [of straw, stalks, or greens for animal feed] which may be lifted with one hand may be moved; but they may not be moved with two hands. Bundles of savory, hyssop and thyme may not be used on the Sabbath, if they were brought in for fuel; (but if they were prepared) to feed animals, one may use them on the Sabbath." (Shabbath 128a, emphasis mine).
Thus continuing to perpetuate the blindness of the Pharisees in technical legalities concerning the Sabbath and its purpose in violation of the written Word of God (see: Mark 2:27-28).
(The Persian/Parthian Empire's leader of their Jews is known as the 'Exilarch').
Jewish Seminary established. 136
Rome permits the establishment of a Jewish rabbinic academy at Usha (Jamnia/Jabneh/Yavneh) in Galilee.
July 10: Roman Emperor HADRIAN dies.
Emperor ANTONINUS PIUS (138-161) revokes HADRIAN's Jewish religious prohibitions, but has an equestrian statue of himself erected on Temple Mount (where the Dome of the Rock now stands).

Hadrian's Wall Memorial
The Gaelic (Hibernia) and Brythionic (Albion) Celtic tribes
Roman Britain (Britannia) – URBICUS is Governor of Britannia ( AD138/9 to AD143).
The stone memorial fragment (with original inscription restored behind it to the right) reads in Latin –
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of his country,
the Second Augustan Legion built this under the command of Quintus Lollius Urbicus,
the Emperor's legate with praetorian powers"
The discovery of this stone, recording building work by Rome's Second Legion, shows that Hadrian's Wall ran from the Forth to the Clyde.
Quartodeciman Controversy 156
POLYCARP of Smyrna (for 14 Nisan, Passover, following apostolic tradition) travels to Rome to discuss disagreement over which day the resurrection of JESUS should be celebrated annually with ANICETUS of Rome (for the Sunday thereafter),
but they do not allow their difference to divide them. (See 199).
See Josephus (Ant. XIV 2:1; Wars V 3:1; VI 9:3)
A Jubilee Year 161-
Under Emperor MARCUS AURELIUS (161-180) the prohibition on Jews visiting Jerusalem is not as strictly enforced.
Bishop MELITO of Sardis describes Roman Jerusalem for pilgrimage purposes as "worthless now because of the Jerusalem above".
Christian Apologist, JUSTIN MARTYR, is martyred for his faith.
The Roman army under LUCIUS VERUS withdraws and returns from its war in the East because of plague and thereby causes it to spread around the Mediterranean. Smallpox plague ravages the Roman Empire until 167.
JUDAH the 'Prince' (reigns c.175–c.220), son of SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL, succeeds to the Jewish Patriarchate of the Roman Empire.
A vicious systematic persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire begins under Stoic philosopher-Emperor Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus).
In southern Gaul – Churches are destroyed after a crowd accuses the local Christians of practicing cannibalism and incest. Forty-seven Christians are martyred just in Lyon (Blandina and Pothinus, bishop of Lyon, among them).
In Rome – Consulship of COMMODIUS, who is named Augustus to have the same status as his emperor father.
Death of MARCUS-AURELIUS (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus).
COMMODUS becomes sole emperor. He devalues the Roman currency, reducing the weight of a denarius from 105 per Roman pound to 96 (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). He also reduces the silver purity from 79 percent to 76 percent – the silver weight dropping from 2.57 grams to 2.34 grams.
COMMODUS further reduces the purity and silver weight to 74 percent and 2.22 grams respectively, being 108 to the Roman pound. His reduction of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's first devaluation during Nero's reign
December 31: In Rome – Emperor COMMODUS is strangled in his bath.
In Rome – The popular emperor, PERTINAX, is murdered by the Praetorian Guard, which then proceeds to auction off the emperorship.
JULIANUS, a wealthy Senator, outbids others but within months is deposed and murdered.
Roman Emperor, SEPTIMUS SEVERUS, rules; ending civil war and establishing peace.
Byzantium – SEVERUS builds its Hippodrome.
In Rome – Bishop VICTOR excommunicates the church of Ephesus over his disagreement on the annual date for the celebration of Christ's resurrection,
but relents after a plea from IRENAEUS of Lyon. (See 156 and 325).
Emperor Septimus Severus
JUDAH ha-Nasi (the Prince) compiles The Mishna (Oral Law) from the various interpretative efforts and judicial compilations of the Jewish rabbinic schools of the 1st & 2nd centuries, thus canonizing the oral traditions including those which the Lord JESUS had vigorously condemned. Various rabbis resist a central compilation of the traditions but JUDAH's prestige prevails over their objections.
The traditional fixing of the Jewish calendar by observation of the New Moon is now supplanted by a 'secret' method of astronomical calculation (the 19 year Babylonian cycle). (see 359 AD).
Roman government regards JUDAH as their own paid government official with the status of Prefect. (see 415 AD/CE).
Jerusalem, extensive Roman building continues at the southern end of the Temple Mount.
East of Palestine the Jews enjoy significantly more freedom under the Persian/Parthian empire.
Christian theologians (such as St. Hippolytus of Rome) now begin teaching [in error] that the coming Antichrist will be a Jew from the tribe of Dan. This further estranges Christians from Jews.
Chronology of Confusion
Emperor SEPTIMUS SEVERUS prohibits Christian and Jewish proselytising, inaugurating the first systematic persecution of Christianity.
CLEMENT of Alexandria writes of the Christian suffering experience, "Many martyrs are daily burned, confined, or beheaded, before our eyes" (probably between the years 202 and 210).
Roman Emperor SEPTIMUS SEVERUS visits Britain, inspects Hadrian's Wall, in Britain and launches a scorched-earth war against Caledonia, massacring all settlements of Picts.
York is effectively the centre of the Roman world while the Emperor is in residence for the three years of this cruel war.
The Emperor makes his sons rulers: CARACALLA as military head and GETA as civilian ruler in Britain in this time.
Geta from Roman coin flipped
Israel's Jubilee Year c.210
See Leviticus 25.
Emperor Caracalla from Roman coin
February 4: SEPTIMUS SEVERUS dies in York, leaving his two sons GETA and CARACALLA as joint emperors of the Empire.
GETA returns to Rome with his mother and CARACALLA kills more than thirty men who had not supported his earlier attempt to take power by hastening his father's death.
Late December: CARACALLA has his brother GETA murdered, initiating a purge of perceived enemies.
The Pax Romana, from 28 B.C. when Augustus formed the Principate until the death of Septimius Severus in 211 A.D is the longest known time of peace in human history: 239-years of external and internal peace and security in all western Europe, the Middle East and North Africa,
except for two brief civil wars (69 and 192–195 A.D.).
Roman citizenship is conferred on all free (non-slave) inhabitants of the Roman Empire, including Jews, mainly as a method of raising revenue, by Emperor CARACALLA.
Roman Emperor CARACALLA (an obsessive imitator of ALEXANDER THE GREAT), in response to a disorder in the city, orders a general massacre among the population of Alexandria, Egypt, involving many Jews and Christians.
In Babylonia – The Jewish academies (yeshivot) are created, at Nehardea (later transferred to Pumbedita, see 259) under Jewish sage Samuel, and Sura under Jewish sage Rav.
In Parthian (Persian) Babylonia – Two Babylonian disciples of patriarch JUDAS the Prince (ABBA ARIKA and SAMUEL BAR ABBA) begin to propagate the Mishna and related literature as the normative canon of Jewish practice. These two becomes the heads of rabbinic academies at Sura and Nehardea, respectively, and cultivate a native Babylonian rabbinate which increasingly provides the officers for Jewish religious courts.
Emperor ELAGABALUS (VARIUS AVITUS BASSIANUS, notorious for his public homosexual orgies) commands Jews and Christians to worship the oriental sun-god Elagabalus (Baal of Emesa, known as Elah-Gabal). His mother's family were hereditary high priests of sun-god Baal at Emesa.
Jews use Olivet to mourn. 234
Christian scholar ORIGEN settles in Caesarea, Palestine.
He regards Jews mourning on the Mount of Olives over their lost Temple as pathetically misguided.
Emperor Decius
Roman Emperor, SEPTIMUS ALEXANDER, is assassinated by his troops, resulting in 50 years of political and economic instability.
From the
assassination of Severus Alexander to the accession of Diocletian in 284 the Roman Empire sees no less than 26 claimants to the imperial throne rise and fall. The main weakness of the Roman Imperial system – the lack of any clear mechanism for succession – is exposed in a series of chaotic civil wars.
The old monetary system of emperor Augustus is destabilized and silver is debased to token value.
punishments, including exile and death, are directed at Christian Clergy as propagators of the faith.
The first incursion of Goths across the Danube into the Roman Empire.
In Parthian Empire – The Sasanian rulers protect Jews from interference by fanatical Magian priests and innovative Jewish officials.
Thus Babylonia becomes the mediator to the High Middle Ages (9th-12th centuries) of the traditional Palestinian Judaism that had been transplanted to its soil.
Roman emperor PHILIP the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus) transforms the city Flavius Neapolis (modern Nablus) into a Roman colony named Julia Neapolis. (There is no evidence of a Jewish presence in ancient Neapolis/Nablus).
January: Roman emperor DECIUS issues an edict for the suppression of Christianity, requiring all citizens to offer sacrifice as an oath of allegiance. Many Christians refuse and are tortured and executed.
In Carthage and Alexandria – Anti-Christian feelings generated lead to pogroms against Christians.
In Antioch, Syria – Bishop BABYLAS goes to his martyr death singing Psalm 116:15 –
"Precious in the sight of the LORD is the death of His saints."
Carthage – Bishop Cyprian (in his rebuttal of sceptic Deemetrian) states the Death of the World is approaching, based on the evident effect of global cooling on harvests.
Plague ravages the Roman Empire. At its height (from 251 to 266 AD) it kills about 5,000 a day in Rome itself.
In Baylonia – During a Palmyrene invasion Nehadrea is destroyed and so its Jewish academy is moved to Pumbedita.
The Christian church in Rome now has c.30,000 members, 150 pastors, and great influence in the capital of the Empire. Unfortunately, this power influences the church to adopt hierarchical structures like the Roman government and to claim jurisdiction over smaller churches within its sphere of influence.
Church corruption in Rome
Sasanians invade the Empire and sack Antioch in Syria.
Under Roman Emperor GALLIENUS Christians are permitted to live unharmed.
In Gaul – An independent empire is established under former Roman officials.
Goths at Ephesus and in Greece.
Emperor CLAUDIUS II halts the advance of the Goths.
Emperor AURELIAN halts the advance of the Alemanni.
  272 AURELIAN captures Palmyra.
The 'Unconquered Sun' is proclaimed god of the Roman Empire.
Armenia is Christianised.
Emperor DIOCLETIAN (284-305) restores stability to the Empire, subjects Armenia and Mesopotamia to Rome, reforms the administration of Roman North Africa, and suppresses a revolt in Egypt.
Emperor DIOCLETIAN appoints MAXIMIANUS as joint ruler (Augustus), and with the appointment of two junior emperors (Caesars), the Roman Empire is ruled by a college of four (tetrarchy) until the abdication of the two senior emperors in AD 305.
In Jerusalem – The Tenth Legion leaves Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), and the Romans build a new city wall.
Pastor Nicholas of Smyrna
Pastor Nicholas,
of Myra, origin
of the myth of
'Father Christmas'
At an
uncertain date about this year, NICHOLAS is born in Patara, Lycia (Southwestern Turkey). Orphaned young, he is raised by his uncle, the pastor of the local church. He later enters the Christian ministry and eventually becomes pastor of the church in Myra/Smyrna/Izmir. He is reputed to have been present as a delegate at the Church Council of Nicea (325 AD). His care for the poor is well known, and his reputed practice of dropping three gold-coins through the smoke-hole (before chimneys were invented) in the roofs of poverty stricken families during mid-winter (our Christmas) gave rise in later centuries to the story of 'Father Christmas coming down the chimney with gifts. The three gold balls traditionally used the sign of a pawn-shop is supposed to also have originated from story of Nicholas helping the poor. This tradtion later became confused with the Germanic god of Spring and later became the rotund old man in red and white as part of Coca Cola's winter marketing programme. (See 325).
The origin of
Father Christmas
Emperor DIOCLETIAN declares Milan to be the capital of the Western Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire is divided administratively under –
•  DIOCLETION Eastern provinces (abdicates 305 AD/CE)
•  MAXIMIAN Italy and Africa (abdicates 305 AD/CE)
•  GALERIUS Donau provinces (dies 312 AD/CE)
•  CONSTANTIUS CHLORUS   western provinces (dies 306 AD/CE)
After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 407 the Scotti begin to settle along its West coast particularly in Scotland's County Argyll.
The Scotti of Ireland are mentioned by the Romans as aiding the Picts of Scotland in an attack on Hadrian's Wall. (See: 490 AD/CE).
Palestinian Talmud 300
In Palestine – The Palestinian Jewish Talmud (Gemara), a commentary on Mishna, is completed (Talmud Yerushalmi).
This probably stimulates Babylonian Jews to prepare a compilation of their own from records of study and decisions of their own rabbinic academies and courts.
Within the Roman Empire, tensions between rabbinic circles and the official Jewish Patriarch continue to increase.
Trade in salt and gold from the Sahara begins.
It is estimated that by now the number of practicing Christians are about 10% of the population of the Roman Empire (source: Baker 2006:314).
Christians are expelled from the Roman Army.
In the Roman Empire – Under Emperor DIOCLETIAN church-burnings mark the last great anti-Christian campaign, Scriptures are to be burnt, some Christians to be stripped of their offices and others made slaves, until the edict of GALERIUS gives Christians the right to practise their religion and rebuild their churches unmolested.
The Huns (Hsiung-nu) invade China. (See 370 AD).
Emperor Constantine I
Emperor DIOCLETIAN voluntarily abdicates.
In Spain – The Christian Synod of Elvira forbids Christians to eat with Jews and intermarry with them. Essentially Jews are declared personae non gratae.
In Britain – General FLAVIUS VALERIUS CONSTANTINUS (CONSTANTINE) is proclaimed 'Augustus' by his troops.
A Jubilee Year c.308
See Leviticus 25.
Four rulers now claim the title of Emperor of Rome, one of whom is CONSTANTINE (whose mother is a Christian).
CONSTANTINE forbids crucifixion and the breaking of bones as a judicial punishment.
The Empire is now ruled as follows –
•  CONSTANTINE I (son of Constantius Chlorus)   West
•  MAXENTIUS Italy and Africa
CONSTANTINE defeats MAXENTIUS and becomes sole ruler of the West. He uses the Christian symbol of the cross on the shields of his troops.
In the Edict of Milan, Emperor CONSTANTINE I guarantees freedom of religion (legal recognition) for Christianity.
CONSTANTINE bans the Colosseum games because of their pagan associations.
CONSTANTINE condemns the Donatist Christian sect.
CONSTANTINE recognises the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical/church courts.
October 18: Emperor CONSTANTINE decrees –
'We wish to make it known to the Jews and their elders and their patriarchs that if, after the enactment of this law, any one of them dares to attack with stones or some other manifestation of anger another who has fled their dangerous sect and attached himself to the worship of God [Christianity], he must speedily be given to the flames and burned, together with all his accomplices. Moreover, if any one of the population should join their abominable sect and attend their meetings, he will bear with them the deserved penalties.'
CONSTANTINE grants the Donatist Christian sect freedom of religion.
December 11: Emperor CONSTANTINE issues a decree to the Roman municipal authority in Cologne, Germany –
'We give permission by a general law to all authorities to appoint Jews to the Curia...'.
First mention of Jews in Germany
CONSTANTINE defeats LICINIUS and becomes absolute ruler of the Roman Empire.
September 18: Between Chrysopolis (now a suburb of Istanbul) and Chalcedon – LICINIUS' army and CONSTANTINE's army (under a Christian standard) meet in battle. Reportedly, 100,000 men of LICINIUS' army are killed. LICINIUS escapes with some cavalry to Nicomedia and to his wife CONSTANTIA (sister of Constantine) which is then besieged by CONSTANTINE. CONSTANTIA appeals to CONSTANTINE for husband's life. CONSTANTINE agrees and consigns LICINIUS and his family to Thessaloniki. (Constantia dies in 330 after the death of Licinius and their child).
CONSTANTINE as sole emperor makes possible the building of the famous Christian shrines in Aelia (Jerusalem), beginning one of Jerusalem's most splendid and prosperous periods until 614 AD/CE.
The rate
of monetary inflation in the empire now begins to rise out of control. In the following 36 years the 'silver' denarius (standard coin of the early empire) devalues from 4,350 to the new gold solidus, to 4,600,000 denarii to the solidus. (105,747%).
Inflation out of control
June 19: First Christian Council (Synod) of Nicea begins (summoned by emperor CONSTANTINE) over the Arian controversy.
(Pastor Nikolaos of Myra is also present at this Council, upon whose life of gift-giving the later myth of Santa Claus develops, and according to to his hagiography he struck Arius in the face for his blasphemy of Jesus. He dies December 6, 343AD in Myra).
The seventh canon of the Council of Nicea decrees that 'custom and ancient tradition' require that the bishop of Aelia (Jerusalem) should hold an honoured position in the Christian Church.
The Council also decrees against the Passover (Quartodeciman) date for celebrating Easter, and tends to now see diversity as a threat to unity.

Origin of
Father Christmas
see 270AD
Emperor CONSTANTINE authorizes Bishop MAKARIOS of Aelia to demolish the temple of Aphrodite in Jerusalem in order to uncover the 'tomb of Christ'.
CONSTANTINE orders the execution of his wife FAUSTA (who had borne him three sons) and of his son CRISPUS (who held the rank of Caesar). (There were suspicions at court that Crispus was sexually involved with his stepmother).
CONSTANTINE's mother, HELENA AUGUSTA, makes a tour of the eastern provinces of the empire, culminating in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem).
Here the city suburb of Mount Sion is now confused with the Biblical Mount Zion.
Emperor CONSTANTINE orders that the temple of Aphrodite/Venus be demolished and the soil (which had provided a flat surface for the temple) be removed, and instructs Bishop MACARIUS of Jerusalem to build a church on its site.
May 11: In Byzantium – The new capital of the Roman Empire, Constantinople (New Rome), is founded by Emperor Constantine (named after himself), who brings the Palladium, the wooden statue of Pallas Athena, sacred talisman of old Rome, to his new city.
Emperor CONSTANTINE prohibits heretical Christian meetings and divorce.
December 1: Roman Imperial Decree exempts rabbis, elders, and office bearers of Jewish synagogues from personal tax.
Quoted in Gidal, 1998 p.25.
The anonymous 'Bordeaux Pilgrim' reports that Jews anoint the "lapis perfusus" rock near HADRIAN's statues on Temple Mount in Aelia (Jerusalem) in mourning for the loss of their Temple, and that the "crypta" of Jesus and Golgotha hill are not yet enclosed by the basilica.
May 22: Emperor CONSTANTINE is baptised, and dies.
In the Persian (Sassanid) Empire – The increasing identification between Christianity within the Roman Empire and the politics of Roman power causes the Christians within the Persian empire (under Shapur II) to be seen by the authorities as a danger to the State and steps are implemented to eliminate them. Many massacres occur which eventually cost more than 160,000 Christian lives!
Mazdaism is the dominant religion in Persia
An extremist group of Donatist Christians in North Africa, the Circumcelliones, begin a rebellion.
The Huns invade Europe.
In Roman England
A mosaic of Jesus Christ, identified by the XP (chi-rho; first two Greek letters for Christ) is laid in a Roman villa (Baker, 2006).
It is probably the earliest surviving image of Christ.
The pomegranates on either side were a symbol of eternal life in Greek myth, and were adapted here to represent resurrection.
(In 2016, a Swiss company Amazentis SA, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, announced that a metabolite, urolithin A, rejuvenates mitochondria and reverses muscle aging, thus prolonging life. Tests in mice found it increased longevity by 46%.
Urolithin A is generated by gut microflora as a natural metabolite of ellagitannins, a class of compounds found in pomegranates.)
CONSTANTINE II becomes sole emperor.
Jews, in the towns of Sepphoris, Tiberius, and Lydda, rise in rebellion over laws forbidding them from owning slaves (crippling Jewish industry), but it is quickly suppressed.
Emperor CONSTANTIUS II forbids Christians to convert to Judaism and describes Jews in his official statute as "savage," "abominable," and "blasphemous."
In Gaul – JULIAN (Flavius Claudius Julianus, later 'the Apostate') resides in Lutecia (later Paris) to direct his troops in the north and north-eastern borders.
Jubilee Year
for the Land
See Leviticus 25.
Growing disunity over fixing of the Jewish calendar between the Jews of Syrian Antioch and of Palestine compels Patriarch HILLEL II to publish the astronomical principles for regulation of the Jewish calendar. (see 200 AD).
  360 In Gaul – Gallo-Roman city Lutecia is renamed Paris after its inhabitants (the Parisi).
JULIAN's troops elevate him to rank of Augustus in the West.
Emperor CONSTANTIUS II dies and is succeeded by JULIAN.
July 19: Emperor JULIAN meets Jewish leaders in Antioch and writes to Patriarch HILLEL II promising to make Jerusalem a Jewish city again.
He orders the Jewish Temple's reconstruction. ALYPIUS is appointed to carry out the task.
Christians gather in the Martyrium of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to pray that the Jewish Temple reconstruction be stopped.
May 27: The reconstruction of the Jerusalem Temple is reportedly halted by an earthquake that ignites gases accumulated under the old Temple foundations, which erupt in 'globi flammarium' – balls of fire.
(JULIAN also attempts to restore the temple of Delphi. The oracle is reported to have responded with nothing but a wail over its departed glory).
JULIAN's death causes the project to be abandoned.
JULIAN is succeeded by pro-Christian emperor JOVIAN.
Roman emperor VALENTINIAN I (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus, the Great) resides in Paris.
July 21, just after dawn: An undersea earthquake in the Hellenic Trench near Crete (35° 0′ 0″N, 23° 0′ 0″E; estimated at 8.5 on the Richter scale) causes a tsunami of widespread destruction in Crete (destroying nearly all its towns), central and southern Greece, northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, and Sicily, killing thousands and hurling ships 3 km (1.9 mi) inland.
The tragedy is subsequently commemorated annually in rebuilt Alexandria as a 'day of horror'.
See: 1303 AD/CE tsunami
In Rome – Bishop DAMASUS institutes a great annual ceremony in honour of Peter and Paul as giving spiritual primacy to Rome over eastern Christianity, and as the continuing protectors of the city.
He latinizes the Mass, which had up to now be conducted in Hellenistic Greek (the language of the New Testament), and changes its simple ceremony into a lengthier and more formal one with an element of grandeur to counterbalance impressive pagan ritual. (From this the West acquired the 'kyrie', the 'sanctus', the 'gloria', and creed rituals of episcopal Christianity).
378: He holds a synod which demands state intervention to ensure that western bishops are subject to the bishop of Rome, and that the bishop of Rome could not be compelled to appear in court.
The political church.
The papacy begins.
In Britain – A successful attack by Picts, Scots, and Saxons.
In France – Frankish and Saxon forces raid the coastal areas of northern Gaul.
In Britain – Roman authority is restored by THEODOSIUS.
First appearance of the Huns in Europe. (See 304 AD).
  376 The Goths cross the Danube frontier and enter the Roman empire.
August 9: In Upper Macedonia – Emperor VALENS tries to quell a revolt of Visgoths (whom he had allowed to settle as a buffer against their unruly Ostrogoth cousins), provoked by exploitation by local Roman officals, but they destroy nearly two thirds of the Roman army at Hadrianople (modern Edirne in Turkey).
From now on Rome depends largely on its allies (federati) and mercenaries for its defence.
THEODOSIUS I becomes Roman emperor.
In Roman Britain (near Boxford, Berkshire) – a mosaic is constructed depicting the Greek hero Bellerophon riding the winged horse Pegasus. They are shown attacking the fire-breathing monster Chimera, then being offered the king’s daughter as a reward, a legend that would later be Christianised as St George and the dragon.
THEODOSIUS I summons a council of the whole church (the so-called Second Ecumenical Council of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed) which ratifies his doctrinal decree for all Christendom.
October 3: Emperor THEODOSIUS I enters into peace talks with the Goths.
Pope DAMASUS I commissions an Illyrian priest JEROME (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus/Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος) to revise the previous Latin translations (Vetus Latina) of the four Gospels of the New Testament.
had written to Damasus I warning of false interpretations of Holy Scripture, that those substituting false interpretations for the actual meaning of Scripture belonged to the "synagogue of the Antichrist", and "He that is not of Christ is of Antichrist." Jerome believes that the apostle Paul's "the mystery of iniquity” (2 Thess.2:7) is already in action and that the power restraining this mystery of iniquity is the Roman Empire, but as it fell this restraining force is removed.
See: Wikipedia Jerome
JEROME completes the translation of the Gospels and Psalms into Latin (the Vulgate).
JEROME is forced out of Rome and later settles in Bethlehem in Palestine where he here begins a translation of the Bible based on Origen's Hexapla text.
Bishop AMBROSE of Milan rebukes emperor THEODOSIUS I for daring to punish Christians for burning down a Jewish synagogue (at Callinicum on the Euphrates) at the instigation of the local 'Christian' bishop. AMBROSE writes to the emperor "The maintenance of civil law is secondary to religious interest". Unfortunately, the emperor submits.
Further corruption
of Christianity
marriages between Jews and Christians are forbidden by law.
In Constantinople – A tall monlithic obelisk of porphyry from the temple at Karnak in Egypt is erected at the city's Hippodrome.
February: THEODOSIUS I prohibits all sacrifices and attendance at any pagan temples.
Egypt – 'Christians' in Alexandria burn the library.
November 8: THEODOSIUS I completely prohibits the worship of pagan gods.
Jerusalem has now become a Christian holy city, though not always a charitable one, shifting the centre of religious interest from Temple Mount to Golgotha at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Early September: THEODOSIUS I uses ALARIC and his Goths to quell a revolt (by a battle at the river Frigidus) by pretender EGNATIUS, a puppet of the Frankish leader ARBOGAST. EGNATIUS is killed, but ALARIC is disenchanted by Rome's lack of appreciation.
The prostituting
of Christianity.
Death of THEODOSIUS I (the Great).
The division of his empire into East (under his 17-year-old son ARCADIUS) and West (under his ten-year-old son HONORIUS advised by General FLAVIUS STILICHO) now becomes final.
In Greece – After failing to conquer Constantinople, ALARIC and his Goths terrorize Greece, until General STILICHO brings troops from the West.
ALARIC is however now appointed as a 'prefect' of a large part of Illyricum by the Eastern emperor ARCADIUS.
In Italy – Milan is besieged by the Visigoths and so the imperial residence is moved to Ravenna.
The Latin translation of the Bible (the Vulgate) is completed.
A Jubilee Year 406
'Barbarian' invasions of the empire begin.
As a consequence Britain is stripped of its Roman troops.
Eastern Emperor ARCADIUS dies.
Emperor THEODOSIUS II prohibits Jews from holding any advantageous office of honour in the Roman state.
August 23: Visigoths (under ALARIC) invade Italy, sack Rome, looting, but not destroying its buildings.
Western Emperor HONORIUS tells Britain to arrange its own defence.
Bishop AUGUSTINE of Hippo, North Africa, employs the duty of Roman magistrates to control Christian heretics and religious dissent within the North African church. He gives this a theological base from Luke 14:23 ('compel') with dire consequences for both Jewish and Christian history, particularly in central and western Europe (i.e. the Inquisition).
Basis for the cruelties of
the Inquistion is laid!
Church conference at Carthage, North Africa, condemns Donatism and Pelagianism as heretical.
Visigoths begin conquest of Spain.
Emperor THEODOSIUS II publicly reprimands the Jewish Patriarch GAMALIEL II and strips him of the rank of 'praefectus praetorio'. (see 200 AD/CE)
A mob of 'Christians' in Alexandria murder the last great pagan teacher, HYPATIA.
December 26: After the discovery of three Jewish tombs at Kfar Gamala on the coastal plain of Palestine from a dream by  presbyter LUCIAN, identifying them as NICODEMUS, STEPHEN (the first martyr) and GAMALIEL (the teacher of Saul of Tarsus),  Bishop JOHN of Jerusalem re-inters "Stephen's" remains in the Basilica of Mount Sion which he had built around the Upper Room of the Last Supper.
April 30: Byzantine Emperor HONORIUS outlaws opposition to AUGUSTINE's doctrines of 'original sin' and 'predestination'.
On the death of the Jewish Patriarch GAMALIEL, the patriarchate and the Jewish council associated with it is ended. This approximately marks the closing of Jerusalem Jewish Talmud (in Tiberias) which deals mostly with the Jewish Mishnah orders of zera'im, mo'ed, nashim, and nezikim
The East Roman empire abolishes the Jewish Patriarchate and now diverts its Jewish tax to the imperial treasury.
THEODOSIUS II orders the compilation of laws known as the Theodosian Code.
The Vandals begin their conquest of North Africa.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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