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1240    to    1541

– subject to continuing refinement –
In Western Germany – About three-quarters of the 200 Jewish residents of Frankfurt are massacred and the others forced to flee. (They return to the city around 1270 AD/CE under protection of Emperor FREDERICK II, who was disturbed by his loss of tax revenue).
June: LOUIS IX of France orders the Talmud to be burnt for its blasphemies against Christ and its legitimising of dishonesty by Jews against Christians.
See – Talmud
Crusader re-conquest of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem sacked by Khwarezmian Tartars.
Jerusalem conquered by Mameluks of Egypt.
Pope INNOCENT IV denies the charge of child murder against the Jews and threatens with excommunication any Christians who oppress Jews.
    Franciscans spread a 'blood libel' that causes a massacre of Jews in Valreas.
The Jewish Scapegoat
September: Jews 'admit' under torture at the Castle of Chillon on Lake Geneva that the plague, Black Death, is being spread by Jews poisoning water supplies.
September 26: Pope CLEMENT 6th issues a bull contradicting the allegation, blaming Satan, and asserting that Jews suffered as much as any from the plague, but it does not stop the panic and the massacre of Jews.
In England – The murder of a nine-year-old boy (Hugh of Lincoln), found stuffed into a well, causes a massacre of Jews. A local wealthy Jew, Koppin, and eight fellow Jews are formally executed on no firm evidence.
The Black Plague of the mid-1300s may have killed as much as half the population of Europe and England. Though terribly tragic, the economic laws of supply and demand meant that survivors could command much higher wages -- and live, dress, and dine much better. So the aristocracy passed laws capping wages and restricting both what laborers could wear and eat.
The Black Death arrived in Britain from continental Europe, probably via the Channel Islands, in the summer of 1348. Bristol, Southampton and Melcombe Regis (now Weymouth) suffered first, and from the ports the plague spread at a rate of between one and five miles a day, wiping out almost half of the English population.
Sufferers succumbed to one of three equally nasty variations: the bubonic plague, in which buboes or tumours as big as eggs or even apples would appear on the neck, armpits and groin, bringing death within a week;
a second variation, spread by the breath, attacked the respiratory system, and usually killed its victims within forty-eight hours.
A septicaemic version also appeared, attacking the blood system, which led to internal haemor­rhaging, causing dark blotches grimly referred to as 'God's tokens' all over the body.
HENRY III's exactions from Jews become so intolerable that they beg to be allowed to leave his realm. The king refuses and farms them out to his brother RICHARD, Earl of Cornwall, to extort them further.
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor JOHN IV is deliberately blinded.
A new wave of Jewish persecution sweeps Britain. English Jewry is near ruin.
January 21: In England – SIMON de MONTFORD calls together the country's first parliament.
In Palestine:  Mamluk sultan BAYBARS prohibits all non-Muslims from worshipping at the tombs of the patriarchs in Hebron. (see June 1967).
NACHMANIDES tries to persuade the Jews who had abandoned Jerusalem as a consequence of the Mongol invasion to return and reconstitute the Jewish community in the city. (See 1334 AD/CE).
In France – King LOUIS IX ('Saint Louis') decrees that Jews must wear a rouelle, a piece of fabric, on their clothing as identification.
In Venetian Republic – MARCO POLO (17-years-old) with his father and uncle, set off for Asia on the series of adventures that are later documented in Marco's book. They return to Venice in 1295 (24 years later) with many riches and treasures, having travelled about 24,000 km (15,000 miles).
In England – King EDWARD I makes usury illegal and opens artisan trades to Jews in the 'Statute of the Jews', arousing furious opposition from London tradesmen.
He orders that all Jews over the age of seven must wear a yellow patch on their clothing.
China's attempted
invasions of Japan
October: In China – The fleet of KUBLAI KHAN, carrying 23,000 Mongol Chinese and Korean soldiers with 7,000 sailors sail to the Japanese island of Tsushima, and land near Hakata Nay.
October 20: A storm wind causes the KHAN's fleet to drag anchors and a third of his fleet (300-ships) are lost and and half his army drowns.
Jews are expelled from upper Bavaria.
CHARLES I (of Anjou), Angevin king of Naples and Sicily, inherits the kingdom of Jerusalem.
Groups of Jews are arrested throughout England, their property confiscated and 300 are reported hanged.
In China – Three separate invasion fleets of the KAHN sail for Japan to rendezvous in Takeshima Bay. But –
July 30: Another terrible storm strikes the area and thousands of the KAHN's ships sink.
In China – KUBLAI KHAN builds a third invasion fleet but abruptly cancels the invasion of Japan.
A Jewish Jubilee Year 1288
Franciscans and Dominicans unite in Troyes, France, to provoke a massacre of local Jews.
King EDWARD I of England confiscates the property of his Gascony Jews to fund the ransom for his cousin CHARLES of Salerno, and then expels them.
EDWARD I finally expels all Jews from Britain (according to Schaff c.16,000; Johnson 2,500), confiscates their assets, but protects them from plunder, opening the way for Italian bankers.
A Muslim Arab army from Egypt conquers the (European Crusader) town of Acre in Palestine.
In Germany – The first Jews settle in the fishing village of Berlin. (expelled in 1571).
In France – JACOB BEN MACHIR (a Jew) becomes dean of the Montpelier medical school.
Spain – Its reconquest by Catholic forces from 790 AD/CE now reaches an advanced stage by confining Muslim forces to the small emirate of Granada in its south –
by Astrokey44
In Eastern Mediterranean – An undersea earthquake causes a destructive tsunami which hits Crete, Rhodes, Alexandria in Egypt, and Acre in Palestine-Israel.
See: 365 AD/CE
In France – King PHILIP IV ('the Fair') unfairly orders the expulsion of Jews.
In France – PHILIP IV orders the arrest of all the Knights Templar on a charge of heresy.
The ecumenical church Council of Vienne denounces the liberality of the Spanish law that required a Jewish witness to the conviction of a Jew.
In Britain, torrential rain and floods cause a general famine. Thousands of peasants die of starvation. Great land-owner's are economically crippled partly from lack of bridging finance due to the absence of Jewish money lenders.
In 1315,
Swiss military victory!
the Austrian army invades Switzerland.
With no chance of victory outside of any advantage found in their knowledge of the terrain, the Swiss has to choose their battleground carefully. The Swiss army involved is only 1500 men. They let the larger (8000 men) Austrian army march to Lake Ageri. Here the Austrian army is forced between the lake and a sheer cliff. The gap is blocked up at one end, preventing a quick escape. By the time the Austrian army realised this, rocks, logs, boulders and other heavy objects are hurled down the side of the cliff.
The Austrian Army is caught completely off-guard by this and many are killed here. The Swiss Army then marched down to kill the survivors, this was done easily due to the sheer panic-induced chaos brought about by crushing boulders rolled down onto them.
The Austrian army is decimated, with victory going to the Swiss.
The Battle
of Morgarten
The Spanish Synod of Valladolid demands intolerance toward the Jewish people.
The Spanish Synod of Tarragona demands intolerance toward the Jewish people.
In Jerusalem – ISAAC BEN JOSEPH BEN CHELO, an Aragonese settler, reports that the Jewish community is 'quite numerous', composed of Jews from many lands, but principally from France.
The Synod of Salamanca forbids the employment of Jewish doctors alleging their intention to exterminate Christians.
A Jewish Jubilee Year c.1337
See Leviticus 25.
In the early 1340s, Bubonic Plague (Black Death) strikes China, India, Persia, Syria and Egypt.
Kairite Jewish theologian, AARON BEN ELIJAH, produces his first book on Kairite beliefs Etz ḥayyim ('Tree of Life'). (Kairite Jews reject the attribution of authority to oral traditions). (see 1354).
Kairite Judaism
From about October: The Plague spreads to Sicily, Reggio, Sardinia, Corsica, Genoa, Marseilles, Leghorn (Livorno), Dubrovnik.
The spread of the Black Death (Bubonic) plague in Europe 1346-53
Caused by Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) spread in fleas on rats, etc., which is
a Gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, a facultative anaerobic bacterium that can infect humans and animals.
an estimated
death toll of at least
75 million people.

During pseudo-Christian
America's Korean War,
from 1951 the US
dropped Bubonic Plague
(using infected insects
and shell fish as vectors) on
rural North Korean villages
as an experiment
in germ warfare

assisted by Dr Shiro Ishii
who had helped Japan
in its germ-war
attacks on China.
In Palestine – A Bedouin attack drives all the inhabitants of Jerusalem out of the city.
August: An epidemic of pneumonia and Bubonic plague (Black Death) sweeps England and Wales until the end of 1349, and Scotland in1350.
Anti-Jewish riots in Poland.
About 300 Jewish communities in Alsace and in Rhineland, in Thuringia, Bavaria and Austria are destroyed on accusation in southern France that Jewish poisoning of wells had caused the plague.
The Black Death in Europe continues to make the Jews a scapegoat.
In Strassburg –
The entire Jewish population of 2,000 is seized, and those who refuse baptism are burnt to death in their own cemetery and their goods confiscated.
In Frankfurt – The whole Jewish community is massacred, many Jews choosing to burn down their own homes while inside rather than face death at the hands of the angry mob.
In Palestine – Jerusalem is badly struck by Bubonic plague (Black Death).
In Britain – The Statute of Praemunire places restraints on papal intervention in England.
In Costantinople (now Istanbul) – Jewish Kairite theologian AARON BEN ELIJAH publishes his second book Gan Eden (Garden of Eden) to justify the Karaite code of law.
December: In Catalonia and Valencia – Jewish leaders appeal to the King of Aragon and to the Pope to help improve relations between Jews and 'Christians'.
In France – The peasants revolt (The Jacquerie).
In Frankfurt, Germany – Jews are invited back to the city but are strictly regulated.
A second wave of pneumonia and Bubonic plague sweeps Britain.
1363 the British Parliament approves a reissue of the twenty-five-year-old sumptuary laws in an attempt to preserve a visible distinction be­tween the classes. The laws restricted the wearing of furs, or the in­creasingly popular pointed shoes, to nobles (who were allowed toe extensions of up to 24 inches), gentlemen (12 inches) and merchants (6.5 inches). They also forbade the lower orders from eating anything but the most basic foodstuffs."
A third wave of pneumonia and Bubonic plague sweep Britain. These last two waves of disease reduce the population by about one third.
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ANDRONICUS IV is blinded.
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor JOHN VII is blinded.
In Germany – The town of Cölln (dating back to 1170, situated around today's Petriplatz) burns beside the River Spree as its sister city, Berlin, across the river beyond the Mühlendamm bridge refuses its cries for help. (Two years later, Berliners beg the Cöllners for help as Berlin burns).
In Britain – The peasants revolt in England under WAT TYLER.
A Jewish Jubilee Year c.1386
See Leviticus 25.
Persecutions begin in Spain 1391
In Spain – Anti-Jewish riots and massacres, particularly Seville. An estimated 50,000 Jews are murdered in Castile, and the mania spreads to Aragon. Wearing distinctive clothing by Jews is enforced, shaving of beards and cutting their hair round is forbidden, as well as employment in non-Jewish households, the practice of medicine and agriculture.
November 11: In Jerusalem – A group of Franciscans (Roman Catholics) seek 'martyrdom' by deliberately insulting MUHAMMAD before the Muslim leader, as –
"a libertine, a murderer, a glutton, a despoiler who thought that the purpose of human life was eating, whoring, and wearing expensive clothes".
In Sicily – All Jews are ordered to live in ghettos.
Jewish expulsions begin 1394
In France – King CHARLES IV orders all Jews out of his kingdom. The beginning of Jewish emigration to territories under Ottoman occupation.
Solar radiation begins to drop, leading to the Little Ice Age. (It continues until about ~1900).
In south eastern South Africa – The last of the Nguni tribes arrive along the east coast in their present locations (today called the Swazi, Zulu, Xhosa, Phuthi Pondo, Thembu, southern Ndebele, Matabele, Ngoni, and Hlubi).
See: World Weather
St Brice Eve: In England – King Aethelred orders the genocide of all the Danish Vikings of Yorkshire.
Anti-Jewish riots in Poland.
In Lithuania – Teutonic (Germanic) Knights attack Poland and Lithuania, but the Muslim Tatars and Jewish Karaites fight alongside the leader of Lithuania, grand duke Vytautas, at the Battle of Grunwald (between Warsaw and Gdansk) to defend the country in which the 'Christian' crusaders are resoundingly defeated.
As a reward for their support, Vytautas (ruling from 1392 to 1430) gives the Muslims land and complete religious freedom –
at a time when both the Sephardic Jews, and Europe's oldest Muslim community, the Moors, are being driven out of 'Christian' Spain.
With the death of his father, 26-year-old Henry V assumes England's throne. Later crowned on April 9, 1413, he will go on to lead a stirring victory at Agincourt, almost conquer France, and be immortalized more than a century later by Shakespeare. 
In Tortosa, Spain – Jewish-Christian debates are used by the authorities to humiliate Judaism.
JAN HUS, Czech Christian Reformer is tricked by a promise of safe conduct by his Roman Catholic adversaries and burned at the stake as a heretic, triggering a Czech national revolt against the Catholic Church and its German supporters.
October 25
Friday: In Agincourt, France – King Henry V of England leads his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting against the French king Charles VI, who did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation.
The French are commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.
English victory at
battle of Agincourt
ends the
Hundred Years' War
(This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with English and Welsh archers forming most of Henry's army.)
Pope MARTIN IV issues a bull asserting that he is following his predecessors in commanding that Jews be not interrupted in their synagogue worship, compelled to accept baptism, or persecuted for financial transactions with Christians. (He issues a similar bull in 1429).
In 2010 a team of African and Chinese archaeologists discover in the small coastal town of Mambrui in northern Kenya a 15th century Ming Dynasty coin, a remnant of Ming Emperor Zhu Di.
China in Africa
In East Africa (modern north Kenya) – The Ming imperial envoy from China, Admiral Zheng He, with his Treasure Fleet laden with imperial gifts, reaches East Africa, as part of Ming Emperor Zhu Di’s (1360-1424) diplomatic efforts to win allies outside of China, and exact tribute.
  1421 Jews expelled from Vienna and Linz.
Catholic Crusade against the Hussites (followers of Czeck Christian reformer Jan/John Hus).
March 8:
In China – Chinese Admiral Zheng He (1371-1433) sets sail to the Americas with a huge fleet of ships (60 large Junks and 250 smaller ships), using a highly detailed map, later dated to 1418 AD. He undertook seven voyages in all with his fleet.
China in the Americas
December 4: In London – The Treaty of London provides for the release of Scottish King James I from English captivity. The terms agreed in London for the release of James I from his 18-year captivity in England include a ransom of £40,000 paid in six annual instalments, the provision of 21 hostages as security and an undertaking that the Scots would give no further assistance to the French army until James's obligation were met in full.
Jews expelled from Cologne.
Expelled from the Rhineland and Bavaria, the Jews migrate to Ottoman lands.
In England – Its Parliament passes measures which in effect allow piracy against merchant ships owned by foreigners. (Johnson 1972:108).
In Florence, Italy – Jewish money-lenders charge a 20% rate of interest.
Jews are expelled from Saxony.
A Jewish Jubilee Year 1435
Spires and Zurich expel Jews.
Jews are expelled from Mainz.
Jews are expelled from Augsburg.
July 16: In England – King HENRY VI bans kissing to prevent the spread of disease.
In South America (modern Peru) – A 15-year-old Inca female victim of ritual human sacrifice is buried.
Her perfectly preserved frozen body is today in a deep freeze at Arequipa University. Her DNA indicates a Taiwanese-Chinese origin.
nicknamed: Juanita, with
East Asian/Chinese features
Jews are expelled from Bavaria.
In Spain – Friar ALFONSO DE ESPINA alleges in his Fortalicium fidei ('Fortification of the Faith') that children are murdered by Jews and thus stirs up further persecutions.
Constantinople/Byzantium, capital of the Byzantine Empire, falls to the Ottoman Turks.
Many Jews believe their Messiah will now come because anti-Semitic Byzantium has now fallen, including Jewish communities of western and southern Anatolia, of the Black Sea, of Macedonia, Thracia, and Bulgaria to the new capital of the empire.
Jews are expelled from the crown cities of Moravia.
In Frankfurt, Germany – The 110 Jews of the city are forced to live in a ghetto (Juddengasse). (They number 3,000 in the ghetto by 1610).
In Spain – Queen ISABELLA of Castile marries King FERDINAND of Aragon, inaugurating under their rule a terrible persecution of Jews and ex-Jews, burning alive many thousands, forcing others to flee.
November 1: Pope SIXTUS IV issues a bull authorizing the establishment of the Inquisition in Castile to exterminate 'heretics' (which includes secret Jews).
In Spain – The Inquisition begins it's work in Seville giving 'heretics' 40 days to confess and be pardoned. Those who confess are pardoned on condition of a vow to expose others (see 1481, 1486).
February 6: In Spain – The first auto de fe ('act of faith') is held in Seville in which six men and women are publicly burned to death after a sermon by Friar HOJEDA.
   A disastrous plague breaks out in the city.
The Inquisition's court moves to Aracena where it has 23 men and women burned to death.
February 13: Pope SIXTUS IV writes to ISABELLA assuring the queen that the inquisition's work lies close to his heart. The inquisition's tribunal is raised by King FERDINAND to a department of state.
A Jewish Jubilee Year c.1484
See Leviticus 25.
The Spanish Inquisition in Ciudad Real burns 52 'heretics' in two years. FERDINAND and ISABELLA build a lavish palace from the confiscated wealth of conversos (secret Jews).
As an example of the Inquisition's sentence in this year is that passed on MENCIA ALFONSO:
"As a limb of the devil, she shall be taken to the place of burning so that by the secular officials of this town justice may be executed upon her according to the custom of these kingdoms."
Those "secular officials" that dare resist the Catholic Church's Inquisition are subject to excommunication.
Jews are expelled from Perugia, Italy.
In Italy – Jews are expelled from Vicenza.
Toledo, Spain – the first auto de fe is held in which 750 penitents (including many secret Jews) are marched to the cathedral bareheaded with candles and informed that 20% of their property is confiscated and that they are disqualified from public office.
Jews are expelled from Parma, Italy.
Florence, Italy – Jewish money-lenders charge a 32½% rate of interest.
  1489 In Italy – Jews are expelled from Milan and Lucca.
In Spain – At Seville the Inquisition burns a large number of Hebrew Bibles, and in Salamanca 6,000 copies of the Hebrew Scriptures are burnt.
In Switzerland – Geneva expels its Jews.
Russia – Emperor IVAN III's eldest son and heir by his first wife Sofia (Zoë) dies of gout after being 'ineptly' treated by a Jewish doctor who had been brought to Russia by Sofia's brother, and so IVAN suspects foul play.
November 4: The Spanish Inquisition's burning of 'heretics' reaches 298 persons (including a large number of secret Jews), with 79 condemned to life-long imprisonment.
In Sicily – All Jews are expelled.
March 31: All Jews unwilling to convert by July 31 are expelled from Spain (c.150,000), fuelled by the rumour that Jews had crucified the child of La Guardia.
The senior Jewish rabbi of Spain and many thousands of Jews convert to Catholicism under this pressure.
Alhambra Decree
c.100,000 Jews cross into Portugal at the invitation of its King MANUEL,
c.50,000 Jews cross to Muslim areas of North Africa and Turkey for safety (see 1495), some end up in Palestine and later develop into a significant Sephardic community..

Columbus a Jew
His Jewish kaballah signature which his will required all his descendants to use.
COLUMBUS (real name: Cristóbal Colón) discovers the new world for Spain.
Although thought to be an Italian from Genoa, he did not speak Italian (his primary language was Castilian Spanish, which was the 'Yiddish' of Spanish Sephardi Jews, known as 'Ladino') and he is certain (in terms of his 1526 will) to have been a 'marrano', a secret Jew.
in complete contradiction of America's Trinity Broadcasting Network's 2012 propaganda piece of Christian-ideology in their so-called 'history' series, Columbus was certainly not:
"an Italian Christian intent on carrying out Christ's Great Commission by opening a westerly route to China
because the eastern Silk Road route to China had been blocked by the Muslim conquests of Muhammad II
LIES are not Christian, NOR is anti-Islam propaganda!
  On the contrary – the Muslim conquests gave us paper, by modifying the Chinese method with starch, and also our modern numerals,
so let's not see them as enemies of God for we today are their beneficiaries.
research in 2012, conducted at Sheba Medical Center, Israel, by a team headed by Prof. Eitan Friedman (head of the medical center's Oncogenetics Unit) and student Yael Leitman, shows that the Jewish BRCA1 gene (the 'Ashkenazi mutation') originating from Spain, is present in Mexican-Indians of Colorado, US, from the time of Columbus. This rare mutation was found in the US Indians by Prof. Jeffrey Weitzel and then traced back by Prof. Friedman's team to the Jews of Spain. (The gene is unfortunately associated with an increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer).
Christopher Columbus visits the island and names it Dominica (Sunday Island).
In Italy – Jews expelled from Florence and all Tuscany.
In Poland – Anti-Jewish riots.
Jews are expelled from Cracow and Lithuania.
Pope ALEXANDER VI honours King FERDINAND and Queen ISABELLA of Spain with the title "Catholic", listing among the reasons the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (see 1492).
In Portugal – King MANUEL I decides to exile thousands of Jews to Sao Tome, Principe, and Cape Verde. The numbers expelled at this time are so great that the term "Portuguese" in these colonies almost implied those of Jewish origin. Those who are not expelled are converted by force or even executed.
The expulsion of Jews from Portugal, triggers a mass migration of Jews to the refuge of the Ottoman Empire.
Muslims protect Jews
from 'Christian'
In France – All Jews in Marseille, Narbonne and Lunel are expelled.
In Florence, Italy – Christian preacher, SAVONAROLA, is burned at the stake.
Jews regard Poland as the safest country in Europe. It begins to become the Ashkenazi heartland.
In Spain – The entire conversos population (secret Jews) in Guadalupe is expelled by order of the inquisitor-general DEZA.
  World Jewish population is estimated at 900,000 (0.195%) of a world total of 461 million (Barnavi 1992:1).
In Spain: No books may be printed without approval of a bishop or specified royal judges.
Galley labour as punishment for "heresy" is approved by Pope ALEXANDER VI.
February 29, 1504
On Columbus’ fourth voyage, his ships ran into a storm that led to him becoming stranded on Jamaica. After beaching his two remaining ships (he started out with four) in June 1503, he and his crew threw themselves on the mercy of the local inhabitants. Accounts vary but clearly by February the following year, relationships had soured between Columbus’s castaways and the indigenous people.
In order to continue to receive food and hospitality from the locals, COLUMBUS needed to do some persuading, and he turned to his astronomical almanac for help. Spotting an upcoming total lunar eclipse, he is said to have gathered the locals on the evening of 29 February 1504 and told them his 'god' was angry with their decision and had decided to project his wrath on to the moon. According to the story, when the blood moon appeared, the locals panicked and gave Columbus all the provisions he could want.
July 2: In Germany – Student MARTIN LUTHER returning to university on horseback after a trip home is caught in a storm in which lightening strikes near him and he cries out "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" (as he later described to his father), and later regarded this cry as a vow not to be broken.

Luther's 'Conversion'
(In 1507, Luther is ordained to the priesthood, and in 1508 begins teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg. He receives a Bachelor's degree in Biblical studies on 9 March 1508, and another Bachelor's degree in the Sentences by Peter Lombard in 1509. On 19 October 1512, he is awarded his Doctor of Theology and, on 21 October 1512, is received into the senate of the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg, after being called to the position of Doctor in Bible. He spends the rest of his career in this position at the University of Wittenberg.)
Jews expelled from Portugal.
December 10: France, Aragon, and the Holy Roman Empire form the League of Cambrai, ostensibly against the Ottoman Turks.
MARTIN LUTHER writes to GEORG BURKHARDT (George Spalatin) –
"Conversion of the Jews will be the work of God alone operating from within, and not of man working – or rather playing – from without. If these offences be taken away, worse will follow. For they are thus given over by the wrath of God to reprobation, that they may become incorrigible, as Ecclesiastes says, for every one who is incorrigible is rendered worse rather than better by correction."
Venice initiates a policy of segregating Jews in an island ghetto, all other Italian cities soon segregate Jews also.
December 1: Jerusalem surrenders to Ottoman Sultan SELIM I.
In Germany – MARTIN LUTHER begins to publicly question papal abuses.
Egypt is conquered by the Turks.
In the British
spring of 1517 a bill was posted upon one of the doors of St Paul's cathedral, complaining that 'the foreigners' were given too much favour by the king and council and they 'bought wools to the undoing of Englishmen'. This helped to inspire the riots of 'Evil May Day' in which the radicalism or insubordination of the London crowd became manifest. At the end of April a preacher had called upon Englishmen to defend their livings against 'aliens', by whom he meant the merchants from Florence and Venice, from Genoa and Paris. [Cardinal Thomas] Wolsey had sent for the mayor on hearing news that, as he put it, 'your young and riotous people will rise and distress the strangers'.
A disturbance of this kind was deeply troubling for an administration that had no police force or standing army to enforce its will.
In Germany – MARTIN LUTHER challenges the doctrine Servitus Judaeorum ("Servitude of the Jews"), established in Corpus Juris Civilis by Emperor Justinian I in 529.
LUTHER writes –
"Absurd theologians defend hatred for the Jews. …What Jew would consent to enter our ranks when he sees the cruelty and enmity we wreak on them – that in our behaviour towards them we less resemble Christians than beasts?"
February 21: In Regensburg – Expulsion of Jews.
MARTIN LUTHER is excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church.
Fake Jewish Messiah arrives
In Jerusalem – DAVID REUVENI arrives after the city's surrender to the Ottoman empire (known for its friendliness to Jews), announcing himself as Israel's end time Messiah, and initiates a change in the prayer place for Jewish pilgrims from the Mount of Olives and gates of Temple Mount (the Haram) to the Western (Wailing) Wall (Kotel), which was probably constructed by Roman Emperor Hadrian as a retaining wall for his temple of Jupiter above it in his rebuilding of Jerusalem city in 135 AD/CE. (see 1541).
Change of Jewish prayer place
by a false messiah,
which continues today.
As a result of
complaints about the behaviour of 'Christian' Franks at the venue, the Ottoman emperor SULEIMAN orders the Cenacle Church (above the so-called tomb of David) closed and made into a Muslim mosque.
Germany – MARTIN LUTHER publishes a tract 'Dass Jesus Christua ein geborener Jude sei' ('That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew') pleading for tolerance and rejecting the accusations against Jews of ritual murder and desecration of the Mass.
October: In Switzerland – Dr. HUBMAIER, representing the 'anabaptist' (early Baptist) view participates in a debate with ZWINGLI concerning the nature of the Christian Church.
The mode of baptism
is not in dispute.
TRISTAN DE LEON, in a memorial address to CHARLES V, asserts that FERDINAND and ISABELLA had received 10 million ducats from the confiscated property of  'heretics' (principally Jewish conversos).
Protestant Reformer
Ulrich Zwingli
recommends the
killing of early Baptists
for not 'baptising' their babies
(they believed the Christian Church
to be composed only of those
who personally believe).
Infant 'baptism' was
registration of birth
and the basis of citizenship
in the Swiss canton,
this is seen as treason.
January 17: In Zurich, Switzerland – Protestant Reformer ZWINGLI continues his opposition to the 'anabaptists', supports their persecution and killing, and opposes their teaching (on the unique character of the Christian Church) by using the words of Jesus that the 'wheat' and 'tares' are only separated by the angels at the end of the world, in order to justify a mixed-church in his support for a state-church, in violation of its biblical context in which the 'field' is the 'world' and not the Church (Matthew 13:38).
March: In Zurich, Switzerland – Another public disputation of ZWINGLI and others against the 'anabaptists'. ZWINGLI asserts that baptism is in the place of circumcision in the Covenant of Christ.
November: In Zurich, Switzerland – Another public disputation of ZWINGLI and others against the 'anabaptists'.
The city magistracy issue an order that parents who refuse to 'baptise' their infants must be exiled from the city and canton.
The 'anabaptist' Christians refuse and hold processions in sackcloth calling Zurich to repentance.
Their leaders are arrested and imprisoned in the Augustinian convent.
Under pressure from a commission of ministers and magistrates 24 submit and are released, but 21 refuse, including GREBEL, MANZ, and BLAUROCK (later scourged, expelled, and burnt in 1529 at Clausen in the Tyrol).
Their imprisonment continues in the Witch Tower. They escape on April 5, 1526, but are rearrested.
January 5: In Zurich, Switzerland – The 'Anabaptist' FELIX MANZ is sentenced to death and drowned in the river Limmat while praising God that he is to die for the truth. Five more executions of 'Anabaptist' leaders take place in the following five years.
MARTIN LUTHER reports a nearly fatal bout of diarrhoea brought on by his consumption of Kosher food. In a letter to MELANCTHON, LUTHER suggests that the Jewish community had attempted to poison him. LUTHER further suggests that Kosher foods, which he believed to be disagreeable with the constitution of Gentiles, were eaten by the Jews (who, presumably, would not experience adverse effects from their consumption) as a show of superiority over the Gentiles and as a means of separating themselves from the mainstream German culture. He suggests that Kosher foods be banned from Christian nations.
Another fake Jewish
Messiah arrives
In Italy – Jewish SOLOMON MOLCHO (שלמה מולכו‎; born Diogo Pires) declares himself to be Israel's Messiah.
In Germany – MARTIN LUTHER, who had believed in 'freedom of conscience' at the time of his protest against Papal Rome, now denies this to those who differ with himself, agreeing that 'Anabaptist' and other Protestant nonconformists –
"should be done to death by the civil authority".
In Italy – Emperor CHARLES V offers imprisoned SOLOMON MOLCHO a pardon if he return to the Catholic religion of his upbringing. He chooses instead to be a Jewish martyr and is burnt at the stake in Mantua (5th Tevet 5293 in the Hebrew calendar).
A Jewish Jubilee Year c.1533
See Leviticus 25.
August: In Germany – MARTIN LUTHER refuses to arrange an audience for Rabbi JOSEL of ROSHEIM with LUTHER's prince Elector of Saxony JOHN FREDERICK, who had issued a mandate which prohibited Jews from inhabiting, engaging in business in, or even passing through his realm.
JOSEL of ROSHEIM therefore writes in his memoirs concerning Luther
"...due to that priest whose name was Martin Luther – may his body and soul be bound up in hell!! – who wrote and issued many heretical books in which he said that whoever would help the Jews was doomed to perdition."
6: In the Netherlands – Through Henry (Harry) Philips of Dorset, instructed by Sir Thomas Moore of King Henry VIII's England, WILLIAM TYNDALE (Guillem Tindal), heroic first translator of the New Testament into English, is now burnt alive at the stake in the town square between church and castle of Vilvoorde, in the presence of the Commission of three canons from Louvain University (Tapper, Latomus, Doye). His ashes are then poured into the river Zenne.
JACOB BERAB re-institutes the ordination of rabbis to form the nucleus of a revived Jewish Sanhedrin. However, lack of rabbinic support causes its failure.
December 17: Pope PAUL III excommunicates King HENRY VIII for declaring himself head of the English Church.
In Italy – Jews are expelled from Naples.
Popes PAUL 3rd and JULIUS 3rd encourage the settlement of displaced Jews and protect them from the Inquisition.
Palestine – Sultan SULEIMAN the Magnificent completes the defensive walls of Jerusalem, with 34 towers and 7 gates; its first proper fortification in 300 years, and issues an official edict giving Jews a place of prayer (nine feet wide) at the Western Wall. (see 1523). Jews even hold government positions in his administration.
Jerusalem – Eastern Orthodox (Greek) Patriarch GERMANUS institutes the Hellenic Confederacy of the Holy Sepulchre as official guardians of the Christian holy places, while at the same time the Franciscans (Roman Catholic) form a national community to guard the same holy places on behalf of Latin Christianity, laying the basis for future conflict.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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