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653    to    1239

– subject to continuing refinement –
  653
In Spain – The Eighth Church Council of Toledo demands that converted Jews sign a written promise not to marry within the forbidden degrees of family relations and that they themselves inflict the death penalty on any person who disobeys the observance of the Catholic faith.
  656
In Egypt – Revolt and death of UTHMAN (end June); first civil war among Muslims as the Umayyads take revenge for the murder of the Caliph.
656-661
Caliph ALI IBN ABU TALEB (MOHAMMAD's cousin and son-in-law) rules Islam.
  658
Caliph ALI enters Firuz-Shapur in Iran; the Gaon of Pumbedita and thousands of Jews welcome him with enthusiasm.
661-680
Jewish prosperity under Islam
Caliph MU'AWIYA (first Umayyad caliph) rules the Islamic world and settles Jews whom he considers faithful allies in Tripoli and in Syria. He transforms the Arab world into a secular state in which religion takes second place.
This begins a period of prosperity for Jews and Christians in Palestine.
  668 Byzantine Emperor CONSTANS II is beaten to death in his bath.
673-677
Siege of Constantinople.
  675
In Greece – The Avars and Slavs invade.
  680
October 6: In Karbala, in present day Iraq – Supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Hussein ibn Ali, who refuse to recognise YAZID I as the Umayyad caliph, are killed, including Hussein's six-month-old infant son, Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn, and the women and children taken as prisoners.

2nd Islamic Civil War
  (Shia Muslims (شيعة‎) believe Hussain's sacrifice was ordered by God and was necessary to awaken the ummah and stop Yazid from hijacking Islam.)
Spanish Anti-Semitism 681
In Spain – The Eleventh Council of Toledo is called upon to destroy "the Jewish pest", prohibits Jewish festivals, and institutes a surveillance of converted Jews.
Anti-Christian shrine 688
In Jerusalem – Tenth caliph, 'ABD AL-MALIK IBN MARWAN, commissions the rebuilding of the shrine on the Rock as Islam's answer to the monumental churches of the city that surround the rocks and caves of Christian significance. (The Rock is almost certainly the site of Roman emperor Hadrian's equestrian statue of himself after their conquest of Jerusalem in 70 AD/CE; and was previously the site of a pagan statue (Tammuz/Adonis) in the time of the prophet Ezekiel (8:5,14) before destruction of the first Jewish temple).
  691
In Jerusalem – The Dome of the Rock is built by Caliph ABD AL-MALIK.
  Qur'anic verses are laid into its walls that refute the divine sonship of Jesus in the mistaken belief of thereby protecting the holiness of God
(i.e. that calling Jesus 'Son of God' implies God had sex with Mary and is therefore blasphemous; whereas the phrase itself is simply
a Jewish messianic title from Psalm 2:7, and does not in any way imply deity as some Christians mistakenly assume).
  694
In 'Christian' Spain – Jews are accused of treason and reduced to slavery.
A Jubilee Year c.700
See Leviticus 25.
  705
Byzantine Emperor LEONTIUS is decapitated.
Byzantine Emperor TIBERIUS III is decapitated.
  709
In Jerusalem – Caliph AL-WALID I repairs and extends Temple Mount's retaining walls upward with smaller rocks, and constructs many other buildings in the vicinity, including a mosque on the southwest corner of the Haram (Temple Mount).
  711
In Spain – The Muslim invasion under TARIK brings respite to the Jews and leads to a golden era for Spanish Jewry.
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor JUSTINIAN II is decapitated.
  713
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor PHILIPPUCUS is blinded and murdered.
  716
In Palestine – Caliph SULEIMAN IBN ABD AL-MALIK builds Ramleh; a quarter of the town is reserved for dyers, a distinctly Jewish industry.
717-720
Caliph 'UMAR (II) AL-AZIZ orders all Jews and Christians (so-called dhimmis) across the Muslim empire to wear distinctive clothing. Jewish women are required to wear tinted shoes with bells. He is reported to have excluded Jews from Temple Mount and restricted them to praying at only one gate.
  726
Byzantine Emperor LEO III begins the iconoclast movement (destruction of venerated/worshipped images). (Probably influenced by its offensiveness to the Islamic world).
He is opposed by Pope GREGORY II.
Beginning of the rift between Byzantine and Roman Christianity.
  732
The Franks under CHARLES MARTEL defeat Moorish (Islamic) invaders at the battle of Tours (or Poitiers).
  c.740
In southern Russia – The Khazar rulers convert to Judaism. (The Khazars were a Turkic-speaking people of Central Eurasia).
  747
September 11: An earthquake wrecks Jerusalem, collapsing the eastern and western sides of the Dome of the Rock. The 'Nea' church complex is also destroyed and not rebuilt. (see 527)
A Jubilee Year 749
The 'ABBASID dynasty of caliphs destroy the last UMAYYADs and, in 762 AD/CE, move their capital from Damascus to the newly founded city of Baghdad, with serious economic consequences for Jerusalem.
Islam begins to move away from Qur'anic inclusivity of Jews and Christians and proclaim Islam as the one and only true faith.
العبّاسيّون‎
the beginning of Islam's
golden age of learning
Human Sacrifce!
In South America – The Moche people, who had controlled coastal Peru for centuries, until a dramatic collapse around 750AD, have a history of sacrificing captured warriors. The Sicán, who developed Chotuna-Chornancap around then, shared some of those evil practices.
  751
July: An Islamic army defeats the Tang Dynasty Chinese on the Talas river, Kyrgyzstan, for control of Syr Darya.
The art of paper-making (from mulberry bark, a closely guarded secret by the Chinese) is obtained from prisoners taken at the battle, resulting in paper mills being built in the Islamic cities of Samarkand and Baghdad. The Arabs improve upon the Chinese techniques by using starch which leads to the Muslim preference for pens versus the Chinese for brushes.
  754
King PEPIN of the Franks promises central  Italy to the Pope. The beginning of the temporal power of the papacy.
  759
King PEPIN III, in overcoming the last stronghold of the Moors in his Frankish empire, gives half of this city, Narbonne, to the Jews in recognition of their help.
  765
In Babylon – the Jewish 'chief in exile' of the Bustanai family dies without an heir. Two candidates to replace him are the brothers ANNAN and YOSHIYAHU, allegedly descended from King David. ANAN BEN DAVID founds the Kairite movement in Judaism as a protest against rabbinic law and to assert the unique authority of Holy Scripture. However,the heads of the Jewish yeshivas (theological schools) choose his younger brother YOSHIYAHU, known for his piety, to be their new 'chief in exile'.
  767
In Jerusalem – Caliph Al-MANSOUR in agreement recognises YOSHIYAHU as the Jewish head and imprisons his older brother ANNAN. The division between the two brother tears apart the unity of the Jewish community. Both groups are expelled from Jerusalem.
  771
In Jerusalem – Another earthquake destroys the Temple Mount (Haram) Mosque.
  775
Caliph AL-MAHDI commissions the rebuilding of the Temple Mount (Haram) Mosque on a larger scale than ever before with a beautiful dome. It is now called al-masjid al-aqsã – 'the Remote Mosque' – identifying it with MOHAMMAD's 'Night Journey with [angel] Gabriel'.
  786
In Mecca, Arabia – An uprising against the ABBASIDS is followed by widespread bloodshed and the flight of many Shi'a to the Maghreb, where the survivors established the Idrisid kingdom. The ABBASIDS also execute the direct descendants of the Prophet MUHAMMED who were also the Shia Imams, which includes Imam JAFAR SADIQ and other respected nobles.
  787 The Vikings from Scandinavia begin to raid and settle in England.
  793
In Britain – The Vikings attack and sack the monastery of Lindisfarne in Northumbria. The following year they attack the northern areas now called Scotland.
  797
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor CONSTANTINE VI is blinded and killed.
A Jubilee Year c.798
See Leviticus 25.
 c.800-
In Jewish communities, it now becomes increasingly popular to date the year from the "creation of the world" (anno mundi, AM) as calculated by the rabbis, in a range 3762-3758 BC/BCE.
However, Jewish communities in the East still continue to use the Hellenistic dating (Minyan Shetarot, Era of Contracts) until about the 16th century AD/CE.
   Year-date equivalents for the same year are –
The Various Calendars
 Equivalence
rabbinic anno mundi (AM)
3830
 AM
Hellenistic Era (Era of Contracts)
381
 
Era of Destruction
1
 
Common Era / Christian Era
69/70
 AD
   
Jews in northern France and northern Italy migrate into the German Rhineland.
Jewish pamphleteer, HIWI AL-BALKHI, scandalizes Jewish communities by openly attacking the morality of Scripture and issuing an expurgated version for use in schools that omits "offensive" materials.
  800
December 23: In Rome – In a secret meeting at the Lateran Palace Pope LEO III humiliates himself before CHARLES the Frank in denying accusations against himself of various crimes and vices, in the presence of Frankish, Lombard and Roman clergy and generals, and two representatives of abbot ALCUIN of Yorkshire (senior adviser to CHARLES).
CHARLES eventually accepts his pleas of innocence after the Pope swears a series of oaths that he is guiltless.
December 25: In Rome, St Peter's Basilica – Pope LEO III, without warning insists on performing a Roman ritual in which he places a crown on CHARLES' head and prostrates himself before him as his emperor, as the Frank celebrates Christmas in the church.
Sectarian violence 807
In Bethlehem Riots break out in the Nativity Church between Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) Christians over doctrinal differences.
  813
In Jerusalem – An earthquake seriously damages the dome of the Anastasis, and a locust plague devastates the countryside which leads to severe famine in Palestine. The repairs to the Christian Anastasis increased the size of its dome and lead friction with local Muslims. Also, the ceremony of Holy Fire in the Anastasis that now begins to be practiced appears to supernaturally produce fire to prove the superiority of Christianity to the extreme irritation of Muslims.
The Muslim name for Jerusalem is now al-Quds – "the Holy."
  820 In Constantinople – Byzantine (East Roman) Emperor LEO V is stabbed and decapitated.
  838
In Khazaria – King BULAN of the (Turkic) Khazars converts to Judaism and is followed by his people. Khazaria becomes a place of refuge to many oppressed Jewish communities under Byzantine and Persian rule.
  c.840
The Jewish Exilarch of (Islamic) Babylonia demands financial support from the Jewish communities of (Islamic) North Africa and Spain.
  841
Virtually the whole population of Jerusalem (Jews, Christians, Muslims) flee in panic from a peasants revolt led by TAMIM ABU HARB. The city is plundered, including mosques and churches. The Anastasis escapes destruction by a large bribe paid by the Christian Patriarch.
 859-69
The Gaon (sage/principal) of the Talmudic academy at Sura in Babylonia, NATRONAI II, teaches that to vocalize the scrolls of the Pentateuch (Torah) in use in the synagogue is a violation of the law of lo toseph: "thou shalt not add thereto" (Deut.13:1). (Chomsky 1957:95).
However, within fifty years the 'antiquity theory' of the vowel-signs used in reading the Torah is becoming accepted.
  866
In Britain – The city of York with its defensible Roman walls (the only town north of the Humber river) is captured by a Viking army. It becomes known as Yorvik as is ruled by them until 954 when Anglo-Saxons take control.
  867
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor MICHAEL III is stabbed to death.
  c.868
Under DANIEL AL-QUMUSI the Kairite settlement in Palestine prospers and spreads to north-western Africa and non-Muslim Spain. A barrage of Kairite treatises stimulates renewed study of the Hebrew Scriptures and the Hebrew language, resulting in the development of vocalization systems and eventually the Massoretic text acceptable to both Kairites and Rabbinites in the 10th cent. by BEN NAFTALI and BEN ASHER.
  869
CYRIL, who together with METHODIUS, is known as a Christian apostle to the Slavs, and who invented the Cyrillic Alphabet for their language, dies.
  874
In Iceland – Norwegian chieftain Ingólfur ARNARSON becomes the first permanent settler.
  876
In England – Vikings from Denmark, Norway and Sweden settle permanently.
885-886
The great Viking/Norman siege of Paris, during which the church of Sainte-Geneviève des Ardents is founded on Ile de la Cité in the city.
  895
In Tiberius, Palestine – MOSES BEN ASHER copies and vocalizes a manuscript of the Nebi'im (Prophets). (It is kept today in the Kairite synagogue in Cairo).
A Jubilee Year c.896
See Leviticus 25.
 
A loose federation of East Slavic tribes known as Kievan Rus, ias based in Kiev and other towns along the Dnieper River, in what is now Ukraine.
  900
In Babylonia – The Rabbinite Jewish community is in a state of chaos and dissolution.
912-933
In Palestine – The Jewish rabbinic academy is headed by the Meir family of gaon MEIR, his son AARON, and his grandson ABRAHAM.
  c.920
In Palestine – SHLOMO BEN BUYA'A makes a copy of the entire T'nach (Old Testament). (The text is later verified, vocalized, and provided with Massoretic notes by Aaron ben Asher, the last and most prominent of the Ben-Asher dynasty of grammarians from Tiberias).
Later known as
The Aleppo Codex
  928
In Babylonia – Exilarch DAVID BEN ZAKKAI (reigns 916/917-940) appoints SA'ADIA BEN JOSEPH to head the Sura rabbinic academy. SA'ADIA's translation of the Jewish Bible (T'nach) into Arabic and his Arabic commentaries make the rabbinic (Pharisaic) understanding of the Tenach accessible to masses of Jews.
  930
Islamic Qarmatian sect (founded by HAMDAN QARMAT in Bahrain) attacks Mecca and seizes the Black Stone of the Ka'bah, taking it to their Bahraini homeland (Bildad al-Qadim). It is returned after a ransom is paid. (See 1076).
  c.931
In Sura Jewish Academy, Babylonia – A power struggle develops between SAADIAH GAON and the Jewish exilarch who had appointed him.
A Jubilee Year c.945
See Leviticus 25.
  950
In Wales – Vikings from Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Hebrides raid the coastal monasteries.
  959
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor CONSTANTINE VII dies by poisoning.
  960
In China – The coronation of Zhao Kuangyin as Emperor TAIZU of Song, initiating the Song Dynasty period of China that would last more than three centuries.
  962
February 2: In Rome – OTTO I is crowned emperor of Sacrum Romanum Imperium/Heiliges Römisches Reich (Holy Roman Empire) by Pope John XII.
'Holy Roman Empire' begins
  963
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ROMANUS II dies by poisoning.
  966
In Poland – King MIESZKO (I) accepts Christianity.
  969
In Palestine – Shi'ah caliphs of Egypt (Fatimids) take control of Jerusalem.
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor NICEPHORUS II is stabbed, decapitated, and his head displayed publicly.
  976
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor JOHN I is poisoned to death.
  983
Great Slav rebellion against German eastward expansion.
  988
In Kiev – king VLADIMIR accepts Christianity.
  993
In Sweden – King OLOF SKUTKONUNG accepts Christianity.
1000-1300
Europe enjoys 300 years of warmer weather that increases harvests and allows wheat to be cultivated much further north and at higher elevations.
World-wide warm period begins
Click if you are worried about Global Warming.
 
The graph
shows a three thousand year temperature variance in climate, ending in 1975, measured by isotope ratios in the remains of marine organisms in sediment at the bottom of the Sargasso Sea. 23° centigrade is the average sea temperature for the full period. The 'Little Ice Age' seriously affected the Norwegian colony of Iceland, and triggered the Eskimo wars which annihilated the Norwegian settlements in Greenland.
c.1000
Viking chief LEIF (the Lucky) ERICSSON (son of Erik the Red) discovers North America after being blown off course in a storm during this 'Medieval Climate Optimum' (see above) and establishes a settlement in the coastal area of northern Newfoundland which becomes known as Vinland, and Labrador which he calls Markland.

In Vinland he makes his crew build a small colony named Leifsbuðir.

The first time the Norsemen explore Vinland (Newfoundland) they detected four boats. They take them away and find under each two Beothuk people sleeping.

The Norsemen kill all but one escaped.

So he returns in vengence with about one hundred Beothuk with stone axes, but they were defeated.

The Vikings traded much more than they raided.

The following attempts to illustrate the range and the nature of their trade.
  World Jewish population is now estimated at 1.3 million (0.51%), of a total of population of 253 million (Barnavi 1992:1).
  1001
In Hungary – (St.) STEPHEN is crowned king with a crown sent by the Pope.
Danish genocide 1002
November 13: In England – King AETHELRED authorises the massacre of all Danish settlers in an attempt to exterminate them.
Settler Danes genocide.
  1010
In Jerusalem – The 6th Fatimid caliph, AL-HAKIM, orders the destruction of all Christian shrines, and persecutes Sunni Muslims, Christians, and Jews.
  1012
In Germany – Jews are expelled from Mainz in the Rhineland.
1021-70
In Spain – in the caliphate of Cordova, the Jew 'AVICEBRON' (SALOMON IBN GEBIROL), poet, moralist and philosopher, writes 'Fountain of Life' (a mixture of Aristotelian, Neoplatonic and Jewish thought) which significantly influences the development of medieval thought.
1024-1029
In Palestine – Bedouin revolts ('second war of the sons of Jarrah') continue badly affecting Jewish communities in Ramleh and Jerusalem.
  1033
An earthquake disturbs the surface area of Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The subsidence around 'Solomon's Stables' is filled up with archaeologically rich debris.
  1034
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ROMANUS III is poisoned and drowned.
  1042
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor MICHAEL V is blinded to end his rule.
A Jubilee Year c.1043
See Leviticus 25.
  1054
A star explodes in the constellation of Taurus, later forming the Crab nebula.
Western
Christendom, led by Pope LEO IX, and Eastern Christendom, led by Patriarch CERULARIUS of Constantinople, mutually excommunicate each other, causing a schism in Christendom which is only ends in 1965.
Christendom Divides
The 'Battle of Hastings' and
the Norman Invasion
of Britain
1066
9AM, Saturday, October 14: In a field seven miles from Hastings, East Sussex, England – The so-called Battle of Hastings takes place between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England (King Harold of England had been elected to the throne by royal advisors, but Duke William of Normandy claimed the throne had been promised to him). The battle begins with Norman archers firing on the English, who had formed a protective "shield wall" (The fact that the English army was composed almost entirely of infantry, with very few archers of their own, hampered the French attack because the Norman archers were unable to gather up arrows from the field to reuse).
The story that King Harold died from and arrowin his eye is a myth.
Jews re-enter Britain  
In BritainJews (from Rouen in France) enter, in the wake of the Norman invasion authorized by the Pope.
In Egypt – A seven year famine begins during which the Nile does not rise. (1066-1073) see 1876 BC
  1071
In Palestine – Seljuq Turks displace Egyptian rule and cut off Christian pilgrim routes to Jerusalem, which later stimulates the military Crusade movements to Palestine.
   
August 26: In Eastern Asia-Minor at Manazkert (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey) Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine army and capture their Emperor ROMANUS IV DIOGENES. (Alp Arslan treats Romanos with kindness and again offers the terms of peace which he had offered previous to the battle).
   
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ROMANUS IV is poisoned, blinded, and exiled to the island of Proti.
  1073
GREGORY VII is elected Pope: beginning the conflict between Empire and papacy.
  1076
In Bahrain – Local tribesmen massacre the Qarmatians. (See 930).
  1078
In Italy – Pope GREGORY VII issues a bull banning Jews from holding any official positions in Christian countries.
Gidal, 1998 p.34.
  1084
The Bishop Rüdiger of Speyer grants privileges to the Jews according to the model of the protection letters of LOUIS the Pious.
  1087
September: In England – WILLIAM II begins his reign, has a Jewish personal physician, and is friendly with the Jewish community.
A Jubilee Year c.1092
See Leviticus 25.
1094
In Britain – CADWGAN/CADOGAN ap/son-of BLEDDYN* (Prince of Powys) rallies the Crymric/Welsh princes to retaliate against the Normans invaders. In the years that follow the Cymric/Welsh repeatedly defeat the Normans in direct battle confrontation (in spite of Norman King William II/William Rufus/the Red swearing to wipe Cymru/Wales clean of the Cymric/Welsh) but eventually it is establishing their castles that give the Normans the upper hand.
Cruel Norman attacks
*my ancestor through
his son Maredudd
1095-1099
The official crusader armies set off from France and Italy on the papally ordained date of 15 August 1096. The armies journey eastward by land toward Constantinople, where they received a wary welcome from the Byzantine Emperor. Pledging to restore lost territories to his empire, the main army, mostly French and Norman knights under baronial leadership of Godfrey of Bouillon (1060–1100), Baldwin of Flanders, Raymond of Toulouse, Robert of Normandy, and Bohemond of Taranto, march south through Anatolia (modern Turkey). They capture Antioch (June 3, 1098) and finally Jerusalem (July 15, 1099) in savage battles.
They create four crusader states along the Syria and Palestine coast.
First Crusade
  1096
Trier, France – The first pogrom against the Jews by the Catholic Crusaders.
Jews murdered in various other towns en route
Spier: 12
Worms: 500
Mainz: 1 000
Metz: 22
Etc.
  1099
Pope URBAN II calls for the 'reconquest' of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Crusader Latin kingdom of Jerusalem is set up, and the Byzantine Dome of the Rock becomes the Christian 'Templum Domini' church.
  1104
European Crusaders (Fourth Crusade) conquer the port of Acre in Palestine.
See:1291 AD/CE
  1125
German eastward expansion resumes.
1135
The Crusader States after the first Catholic Crusade –
  c.1140
In England – a separate exchequer and special justices are set up at Westminster to deal with the extensive activities of the Jewish community.
A Jubilee Year c.1141
Se Leviticus 25.
  1144
In England – Interest rates of Jewish money-lenders averages 50%, rising to a high of 66²/³%.
   
In England – Norwich monk, THOMAS of Monmouth, accuses Jews of the ritual murder of a child (WILLIAM of Norwich), encouraged by monks of monasteries heavily indebted to Jewish money-lenders, causes anti-Jewish riots and murders. THOMAS' book on the subject launches the 'blood libel' against Jews across Europe.
  1149
In Morocco, north Africa – Under the Almohade dynasty, Jews and Christians must now choose between conversion to Islam or emigration. Synagogues and churches are destroyed or turned into mosques. Many Jews and Christians migrate but others agreed to say the formula of the Moslem creed while secretly continuing the observance of their own religion. MAIMUN BEN JOSEPH (father of Maimonides, see 1180AD) who had settled at Fez with his family, writes his "Epistle of Consolation" in which he advises his fellow Jews not to lose heart and faith. His son MOSES writes his "Letter concerning Conversion" to encourage those who felt the gravity of even this outward desertion from the faith of their fathers.
  1154
In England – HENRY II's re-establishment of law and order allows Jewish communities to flourish again.
  c.1160
In Morocco – ABU YUSUF YA'QUB AL-MANSUR (ابو يوسف يعقوب المنصور) forces Jews to wear distinguishing clothing of a black tunic with long sleeves, and a yellow scarf as head-covering. (His successor Abu Abdallah changed the colour of the gaberdine also to yellow).
  1162
GENGHIS (CHINGIS) KHAN, founder of the Mongol Empire, is born.
  1166
In England – A group of 20 Christian evangelists arrive in England from the Continent, and are publicly branded as heretics, chained and left to die by the established 'Christian' Church (Danziger & Gillingham, 2003 p.201).
  1168
In England – The rumour of the crucifixion of the boy (HAROLD of Gloucester) causes a massacre of Jews.
The Welsh arrive in America! 1170
Madoc/Madog (ap Owain Gwynedd) lands at Mobile Bay, North America, with a fleet of ten ships from Porthmadog, North Wales. (See: Lloyd Thomas Family Tree)
 1172-1204
In Egypt: Jewish MAIMONIDES (MOSES BEN MAIMON or RAMBAM) becomes the foremost intellectual figure of medieval Judaism. His greatest work, 'Guide for the Perplexed' is an attempt to accommodate philosophy to revealed religion.
  1177
In England – Jews receive permission to create cemeteries outside the walls of the city in which they reside rather than having to bring their dead to London for burial.
1178
As related by astronomers Clube and Napier in their book The Cosmic Serpent, a strange event is observed to affect the Moon, which may be explained by a large impact on its hidden face, originating the Giordano Bruno crater.
A number of observations suggest that catastrophic cometary or meteoritic impacts around the same time also affects the Pacific Ocean basin:
Maori legends of great fires destroying forests and the moa bird, to be associated to the recently found Tapanui craters;
• dynastic changes and migrations throughout Polynesia;
• very intense El Niño activity with flooding of the coastal Peruvian regions;
• demise of the local Moche civilizations, and the birth of the Incas civilization higher in the Andes;
• the emigration of the Aztects from the Pacific coast to the interior in the most well protected area from tsunams;
• unusually intense typhoon activity in the Chinese-Japanese sea;
• unusually strong floods in Northern China with diversion of the course of the Huang Ho river;
• unusually cold wheather in the Mongolian plateau, probably a main reason for the Mongolians invading nearby areas;
• a great sign in the sky seen by the boy Gengis Khan forecasting his future of world master;
• the number of comets seen in the sky as recorded by Chinese astronomers is unusually high.
The effects of
meteor impacts
  1180
Jewish Rabbi MAIMONIDES completes his Mishneh Torah (Code of the Torah) in 14 systematic volumes.
Unfortunately it also contains inflammatory statements such as –
"It is a religious duty (mitzvah), however,
to eradicate Jewish traitors, minnim, and apikorsim and to cause them to descend to the pit of destruction
[Hell],
since they cause difficulty to the Jews and sway the people away from God, as did Jesus of Nazareth and his students,
and Tzadok, Baithos, and their students. May the name of the wicked rot."
Anti-Christian
Jewish Propaganda
is now entrenched
  1181
In England – the rumour of the crucifixion of the boy (ROBERT of Edmonsbury) by Jews causes a massacre of Jews.
  1182
In France – King PHILIP AUGUSTUS, using the pretext that Jews had crucified a Christian child, expels all Jews from his realm and confiscated their goods.
  1183
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ALEXIUS II is strangled and decapitated.
  1185
In England – The Jewish financier AARON of Lincoln dies, who had financed the building of Lincoln Cathedral, Peterborough and St Albans Abbeys, and at least nine Cistercian convents (his clients included the king of Scotland and Archbishop of Canterbury). The Crown sets up a special exchequer, the Scaccarium Aaronis, to collect his debts, a process which takes 20 years, and is probably the largest windfall ever received by an English government (Johnson 1972:107).
Interest rates charged were usually around 50% and sometimes even 66²/³%.
   
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ANDRONICUS I is mutilated and tortured to death.
  1187
October 2: SALADIN conquers Jerusalem. He closes all 12 entrances to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre but one door is only sealed off, and the key to this remaining entrance is entrusted to a Muslim family. The key has stayed in the same family ever since.
  1189
In England – RICHARD I's cruel treatment of Jews after his coronation sparks a massacre of Jews in London, Norwich, Lincoln, Stamford, and York, where 500, shut up in the castle, commit suicide with their wives and children in utter despair.
A Jubilee Year 1190
March 16, Friday night: In England – the Jewish community of York is massacred, but HUGH of Lincoln provides protection. 150 Jews of York, after seeking protection in the Royal Castle (Clifford's Tower) from a mob, incited by Richard Malebisse and others, choose to die at each other's hands rather than renounce their faith and they set the castle ablaze.
In Scotland – Bishop of Glasgow forbids his churchmen to "ledge their benefices for money borrowed from Jews".
  1193
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ISAAC II is blinded.
  1194
In Jerusalem – SALADIN removes the Christian cross from the top of the Dome of the Rock.
  1202
FIBONACCI, a mathematician born in the Republic of Pisa, Italy, who had studied in Bejaia (Bougie) in Algeria, North Africa, writes his book Liber Abaci to promote the use of Arabic numerals in Europe (originally derived by the Arabs from India).
  1204 In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ALEXIUS IV is strangled.
In Constantinople – Byzantine Emperor ALEXIUS V is blinded and maimed.
   
December 13: MAIMONIDES (Moses ben Maimon), Jewish philosopher and physician to Sultan SALADIN, dies.
  1205
Pope INNOCENT III writes to ALFONSO of Castile that, like Cain the murderer, Jews are to wander the earth in slavery by their guilt till the time shall come in the last days for their conversion.
  One of the world's oldest and most historically important trade routes.
Chinese soldiers protect travelers after entering China at Jiayuguan from the desert by the Gate of Reconciliation in the Great Wall and customs officials register the merchant and his goods, but West of Jiayuguan there is no protection and so commercial caravans of goods needed their own defence forces,
and this is an added cost for the merchants making the trip.
 
The
 Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent from around 1207 to 1360 helped bring political stability and re-establish the Silk Road (via Karakorum) and also brought an end to the Islamic Caliphate's monopoly over world trade.
 
Because
 the Mongols dominated the trade routes, it allowed more trade to come in and out of the region. Merchandise that did not seem valuable to the Mongols was often seen as very valuable by the west. As a result, the Mongols received in return a large amount of luxurious goods from the West. However, they never abandoned their nomadic lifestyle.
 
Soon
 after Genghis Khan died, the Silk Road was in the hand of Genghis Khans' daughters. The Mongol diplomat Rabban Bar Sauma visited the courts of Europe in 1287–1288 and provided a detailed written report back to the Mongols. Around the same time, the Venetian explorer Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China, and his tales, documented in The Travels of Marco Polo, opened Western eyes to some of the customs of the Far East.
 
But
 he had been preceded by numerous Christian missionaries to the East, such as William of Rubruck, Benedykt Polak, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, and Andrew of Longjumeau.
 
1210
In England – King JOHN brutally extorts £44,000 from Jews, using mass arrests and other means.
Christian reformers/'heretics' arriving from the continent are arrested and burnt at the stake.
  1215
In England – Archbishop LANGTON assists in engineering the Magna Carta and helps insert three of what some would call anti-Jewish clauses.
November: The Fourth Lateran Council (12th Ecumenical Council) under Pope INNOCENT III decrees that Jews are to wear different clothing to others for easy identification, be banned from holding civil office or owning land, and are to be confined indoors during passion week.
Jews "whether men or women, must in all Christian countries distinguish themselves from the rest of the population in public places by a special kind of clothing. ...henceforth in case of such [sexual] criminal intercourse no mistake can be alleged as an excuse."
• England chooses a badge showing two stone tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments.
• In France, St. Louis orders a badge to be made of red felt or saffron-yellow cloth, cut in the shape of a wheel and worn on the upper garment, one in front and one in back
• Germany institutes the rotella, a patch of yellow cloth in the shape of a wheel or an O.
• In some countries a simple badge is considered inadequate, and the wearing of a hat of a specified colour is also prescribed
See: Magna Carta
  1221
April: The city of Nishapur (of present day Iran) during a rebellion within the city walls, a lone archer strikes down Genghis Khan's favourite son-in-law with an arrow to the heart, Tradition says that the Khan's daughter was so incensed that she demanded the heads of every man woman and child in the city. The executions were actually carried out with terrifying efficiency and the heads of the poor Nishapurians, numbering some 1.7 million were arranged in a series of pyramids over the next 10 days.
Which probably makes this the bloodiest day in history.
  1222
In England – The Synod of Oxford at the request of Archbishop STEPHEN LANGTON prescribes that all Jews must wear a distinctive woollen patch on their clothing.
  1227
In France – The Council of Narbonne orders Jews to wear a distinguishing badge.
  1229
Crusader troops gain control of Jerusalem.
Emperor FREDERICK II (excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX) who led this Crusade crowns himself king of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
He sentences all Jews to perpetual slavery for the crucifixion of CHRIST, yet is also reported as saying that, CHRIST, MOSES and MOHAMMED were all self-deceived impostors.
He fortifies the castle of Jaffa and leaves two inscriptions in its walls, one in Latin and the other in Arabic.
6th Crusade
  1233
Jewish Rabbi SOLOMON of Montpelier, in southern France, instigates the church authorities to burn MAIMONIDES' "Guide for the Perplexed" as a dangerously heretical book.
  1236
Pope GREGORY 9th condemns the Talmud.
A Jubilee Year 1239
Islamic re-conquest of Jerusalem.
 
In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Jews in France and England and the German lands (there was no unified 'Germany' until 1870) still lived in semi-voluntary Jewish quarters for reasons of safety as well as communal activity and self-help. They created these neighborhoods near synagogues, and often in the center of towns and near the cathedral, as in Paris. Yet though the synagogue lay at the center of their social existence, the quarters in which Jews lived were hardly cut off from the surrounding city. Medieval Jews had substantial freedom to come and go as they pleased. They were aware of doings in other communities spread throughout the area we call Western and Central Europe. They traveled and had regular contact with Jewish travelers. Some also read local and vernacular literature, and the elite knew Latin and even canon law, the law of the Church.
The first
ghetto was established to segregate the Jewish residents of Venice. The area was called ghetto because of its association with the municipal copper foundry previously located across the canal in the Ghetto Vecchio (the Old Ghetto). Il ghetto or getto is derived from gettare, which means 'the pouring or casting of metal'.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle


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