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1542    to    1820

– subject to continuing refinement –
In Germany – MARTIN LUTHER writes his pamphlet "The Jews and their lies" (Von den Juden und Ihren Lügen) and "On the Holy Name and the Lineage of Christ" (Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi) stating that the Jews are –
"base, whoring people, that is, no people of God, and their boast of lineage, circumcision, and law must be accounted as filth."
The synagogue is therefore a –
"defiled bride, yes, an incorrigible whore and an evil slut..."
and Jews are full of the "devil's faeces... which they wallow in like swine."
Luther's anti-Semitism
Judensau on the Wittenberg Parish Church, cited by Luther, describing the Jews as a sow wallowing in excrement
further advocates –
•  setting synagogues on fire,
•  destroying Jewish prayer-books,
•  forbidding rabbis from preaching,
•  seizing Jews' property and money, smashing up their homes, and ensuring that these "poisonous envenomed worms" be forced into labour or expelled "for all time."
He also seems to sanction their murder, by writing "We are at fault in not slaying them."
(Three years later Luther dies. Hallelujah!).
JOSEL OF ROSHEIM refutes Luther's assertions in a voluminous petition to the magistrate of Strasbourg, and the latter thereupon wisely inhibits a new edition of Luther's book.
In Germany – JOSEL OF ROSHEIM (1478-1554) obtains confirmation from Emperor CHARLES V that Jews are granted permission to charge higher interest rates from borrowers because they pay higher taxes and are not allowed to cultivate land or exercise trade. He pays the Emperor 4,400 guilders [3,000 florins] toward the expenses of the French war (allied with the Turks) in coin and gifts to obtain a certificate of protection concerning accusation of ritual murder.
This begins a consolidation and strengthening of the Jewish community in Germany. (See 1552).
December 13: Pope PAUL III opens the Catholic 'Council of Trent' to formulate Catholicism's response to the Protestant Reformation.
In Geneva – JOHN CALVIN declares, concerning Erasmian polymath MICHAEL SERVETUS, in a letter to a friend that he intends to have him killed (because he does not believe in the Trinity) –
"...if my authority is of any avail, I will not suffer him to get out alive."
CALVIN supplies information via his friend (GUILLAIME DE TRIE) to the Catholic Inquisition concerning SERVETUS, including letters written to CALVIN by him, to establish his guilt and therefore his burning.
SERVETUS however flees from the Inquisition to Geneva, and so CALVIN eventually has his way in any case, except that he would have preferred another method of execution. (see August 1553).
Calvin the Nasty
18: In Eisleben, Germany – MARTIN LUTHER the Reformer preaches of the Jews
"They are our public enemies. They do not stop blaspheming our Lord Christ, calling the Virgin Mary a whore, Christ, a bastard, and us changelings or “meal calves” (Mahlkälber). If they could kill us all, they would gladly do it. They do it often, especially those who pose as physicians – though sometimes they help – for the devil helps to finish it in the end. They can also practice medicine as in French Switzerland. They administer poison to someone from which he could die in an hour, a month, a year, ten or twenty years. They are able to practice this art"
See Graph
Much of the earth endures the so-called Little Ice Age.
Global average temperature drops between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius, ice sheets advance over farms and valleys in Greenland and the Baltic Sea freezes regularly.
In England – The Thames river freezes regularly, crops fail, and famine and disease affects Europe.
The Elizabethan preacher, JOHN KING, declares in 1595 –
"Our years are turned upside down; our summers are no summers; our harvests are no harvests".
See Global Warming
In Palestine – Sultan SULEIMAN's Russian-born wife, ROXELANA, builds the Takiyya Hospice in Jerusalem which becomes the most important charitable institution in Palestine.
July: Jerusalem – The Venetians bribe Ottoman Sultan SULEIMAN to hand over the Convent of Georgian nuns (West of the Holy Sepulchre) to the Franciscan Friars, who rename it St. Saviour's convent.
German Lutheran forces, in an alliance of Turks and French, defeat Holy Roman Emperor CHARLES V.
Rabbi JOSEL of ROSHEIM sends a warning to the emperor Charles V at Innsbruck by a special messenger that Elector Moritz of Saxony intends to invade Tyrol, and the emperor is thus enabled at the last moment to effect his escape.
Jewish aid for peace
In Palestine – Jerusalem now has a total population of 13,384 according to the Ottoman census, of which Jews and Christians comprise only about 12% each.
Jerusalem is c.76% Arab
See: 1546  
August 13: In Geneva, Switzerland – Renowned scientist MICHAEL SERVETUS (defined pulmonary circulation as part of the cardiovascular system) who had developed a non-trinitarian Christology, attends a church service where CALVIN is preaching, is identified by him and arrested as a heretic at Calvin's request. He is accused of propagating non-trinitarianism, opposition to infant-baptism, and of accordingly favouring Jews and Turks. With CALVIN's approval SERVETUS is sentenced to death.
(On 27 October 1553 Servetus is burned at the stake outside Geneva with a copy of his book chained to his leg. Calvin would have prefer another method of execution.)
Calvin's crime
September 9: In Rome, Italy – The Roman Catholic Inquisition burns copies of the Jewish Talmud and other Jewish texts in the city's Campo de Fiori.
In Spain – All copies of the Jewish Scriptures in Spanish are seized and burnt, and all booksellers keeping or selling prohibited books (e.g. Jewish Scriptures) are punished with confiscation of goods or death.
May: Cardinal CARAFFA, Grand Inquisitor, becomes Pope PAUL 4th and reverses the policy of Jewish protection.
July 14: All Jews in Rome are forced onto the left bank of the Tiber and surrounded by a wall, with three gates locked at night, in accordance with the papal bull Cum nimis absurdam of Pope PAUL IV, which also requires Jewish men and women to wear distinguishing clothing. (This ghetto begins a trend which spreads across Europe).
In Derneburg, Germany – Many women are burned alive as alleged witches.
In Augsburg, Germany – The 'Peace of Augsberg' ends the wars of the three state-churches of the West (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed) with the tribalizing of the Christian religioncuis regio, eius religio – in which a people's religion is decided by their ruler, provided that the ruler is of one of the three named religions. Liberty of conscience is denied to the subject but conceded to the ruler on that condition, thus a change of ruler could mean a change of religion for the people.
In Scotland – CALVIN's teachings under JOHN KNOX lead Calvinists to take up arms against their Catholic administration.
In France – Emperor CHARLES 6th expels all Jews.
July 24, in Britain: Mary, Queen of Scots, abdicates and is replaced by her one-year-old son.
Pope PIUS 5th counteracts his predecessor's anti-Semitism, but expels the Jews from all papal states except Rome and Ancona..
In Italy – Expulsion of the Jews from Tuscany, Italy, except the ghettos in Florence and Sienna.
In Germany – The Jewish residents of Berlin are expelled.
August 24: In France – 3,000 Huguenot Protestant Christians are massacred by Catholic troops in Paris.
The massacres spread through the country until October leaving about 70,000 dead. The Catholic Pope and the king of Spain welcome the news.
Rabbinic Jewish 5335 1574
Messianic fervour now infects the Jewish world.
In the Free City of Frankfurt – Ashkenasic Jewish IZAAK ELCHANAN ROTHSCHILD (meaning 'red shield' in Old German, from the sign of a local tavern) is born, from whom are descended the famous family of financiers.
A Jubilee Year c.1582
See Leviticus 25.
In North America – Britain's JOHN WHITE makes his first reconnaissance mission to Roanoke Island (now in North Carolina). Two years later, he is back, as governor of a new permanent colony sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh. But the going is hard, and soon White sails back to England to organise further supplies for the 115 colonists which included his own daughter and son-in-law, and their infant daughter Virginia Dare, the very first child born to English settlers in the New World, on 18 August 1587.
This first colony is eventually assimilated by neighbouring tribes.
The first European
colony in America
In Ottoman Jerusalem – The Ramban Synagogue is officially closed, resulting from years of complaints by the adjoining al-'Umari mosque about the loud noise of Jewish prayers.
January 22: Pope SIXTUS 5th asserts his responsibility for the institution of the Spanish inquisition.
In Palestine – Sultan MEHMET III restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
King PHILIP of Spain orders the expulsion of the Jews from the Duchy of Milan.

Dutch use of piracy
In Haarlem, Netherlands – JAN JANSZOON van Haarlem becomes a pirate attacking Spanish shipping with authorization from the Dutch authorities during their war of independence (1568–1648). He later decides that his piracy is more profitable to operate from the North African (Barbary) coast so he abandons his wife and child (Lysbeth Janszoon) and moves there.
When attacking a Spanish ship, he flies the Dutch flag; when attacking any other shipping, he becomes an Ottoman captain flying the red half-moon of the Turks, or the flag of any of various other Mediterranean principalities as suited him. He chooses to convert to Islam and takes the name 'Murat Reis', working as pirate also with another Dutchman Ivan Dirkie De Veenboer (Muslim name Sulayman/Slemen Reis) who is subsequently killed by a cannonball in 1619.
Captured persons were usually sold as slaves.
Slavery in Christianity
USA Treaty of Tripoli
June 7, 1797
because Muslim Algiers concludes peace with several European nations, it is no longer a suitable harbour from which to sell captured ships or their cargo, and so he moves to the ancient port of Salé and begins operating from it as a Barbary pirate/corsair, eventually with a fleet of pirate ships and recruits many new Dutch volunteers despite a Dutch prohibition on piracy. See: June 1631 below.
In Ukraine and Poland – Jewish oppression of the peasant population builds great resentment against them. (See 1648).
In Palestine – Sultan AHMAD I restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
In England – Bubonic plague wracks London, killing 35,000.
In Britain – The Gunpowder plot to blow up parliament is stopped, and Guy Fawks annual celebration invented.
In London – On suspicion of being Jewish, Portuguese merchants are expelled.
In Palestine – Sultan MUSTAFA I also restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Outbreak of the Thirty Years War in Europe.
July 3: The Treaty of Ulm is signed between the Holy Catholic League and the Protestant Union, giving a brief truce during the Thirty Years War.
In Virginia, North America – By fall 1621, only 53 remain of the 132 settlers who arrived on the Mayflower. But those who had survived brought in a harvest, and in keeping with tradition, the governor calls the living 53 together for a three-day harvest feast, joined by more than 90 locals from the Wampanoag tribe.
(This was no small thing. Getting through the first year was an accomplishment. England's successful colony of Virginia had had a massive death toll — of the 8,000 arrivals between 1607 and 1625, only 15% lived.)
Off the Florida coast – The Nuestra Señora de Atocha galleon sinks, with a collection of rare emeralds.
In Germany – The Catholic bishop of Wurtzburg, PHILIP ADOLF VON EHRENBERG, burns 900 people to death for heresy (guilty of Protestantism or witchcraft), including his own nephew, 19 priests, and a child of seven.
A really sick mind!
In Frankfurt, Germany – VINCENT FETTMILCH leads a mob of artisans and merchants who raid and plunder Jews in the Ghetto. The Emperor executes the mob's leaders and the Jews are welcomed back to the Ghetto.
'Purim Winz'
Purim of Vincent
In London – Plague kills 30,000.
In England – King Charles I abuses his powers as a king to surpass the law and Parliament’s decisions
The Petition of Right is passed by Parliament which prohibited the king from infringing on specific liberties of the people. The king could –
  • Not imprison his subjects without due cause
  • Not levy taxes without Parliament’s consent
  • Not house soldiers in private homes
  • Not impose martial law in peacetime
But in 1629, a year later, Charles dissolves Parliament and does not call it back into session, violates this Petition of Right by imposing many taxes on the English people, and at this point he is the monarch in an absolute monarchy, but because his popularity was so low he would not stay in a position of power for very long.
A Jewish Jubilee Year c.1631
See Leviticus 25.
June 20: In West Cork, Ireland – Dutch Pirate JAN JANSZOON attacks and loots the village of Baltimore capturing more than 108 persons whom he sells into slavery.
See: 1600 above
In Palestine – Greek Orthodox patriarch, THEOPHANES, presents a letter to Sultan MURAD IV from Caliph 'UMAR to Patriarch SOPHRONIUS in 638 granting the Greeks control of the holy places. Control of the Nativity Church in Bethlehem and key sites in the Holy Sepulchre Church in Jerusalem is given to the Greeks. After a bribe of 26,000 piastres the Sultan annuls the grant and control is returned to the Franciscans.
Bribes return control of the holy places of Jerusalem to the Greeks.
In America – Among the theses offered by the first class of Harvard graduates is Hebrea est Linguarum Mater (Hebrew is the mother of the languages). (Hebrew is actually derived from the Canaanite language which Abraham learned after arriving in Canaan).
In Britain – London city supports Parliament in the British Civil War.
The development
of modern democracy
October 28 to November 9: In Putney, London, Britain – In the parish church of St. Mary, the General Council of the New Model Army (the parliamentary army), having defeated the army of King Charles, now begins to debate the political principles of national government.
Their Secretary, William Clarke, keeps a verbatim record to the best of his ability.
These debates on constitutional reform in Britain paved the way for many of the civil liberties we value today.
The Putney Debates
The Thirty Years War in Europe ends.
In Ukraine and Poland – 100,000 Jews are reported massacred, 300 Jewish communities destroyed, and many thousands more impoverished. Attacks are carried out, among other, by Cossacks under leadership of (Hetman) Khmelnitsky (Chmielnickij). (See 1602).
Jerusalem – On and around Temple Mount (Haram) there are 800 salaried imams, 50 muezzins, and many Qur'ãn reciters, assisting the thousands of Muslim pilgrims from India, Persia, Kurdistan and Asia Minor.
At Easter between five and ten thousand Christian pilgrims also crowd the city, paying entrance fees to the Holy Sepulchre. For security the city gates are locked at night.
In Indonesia – The Dutch, after displacing the Portuguese and Spanish, introduce a policy known as 'extirpatie': extirpation. All clove trees not controlled by the Netherlands United East India Company, or VOC, are uprooted and burned. Anyone caught growing, stealing or possessing clove plants without authorisation faces the death penalty. On the Banda Islands, to the south, the world's only source of nutmeg, the Dutch use Japanese mercenaries to slaughter almost the entire male population.
Spice trade control
December: In England – OLIVER CROMWELL, as Lord Protector, allows Jews to reside in England for the first time.
In Poland – Sweden invades with the help of the Tartars and Cossacks. Poland is devastated. A population of 10 million is reduced to 6 million.
Readmission of Jews to Britain 1656
In Britain – OLIVER CROMWELL, against fierce opposition, authorizes the return of Jews to Britain for the first time since EDWARD I (see 1290). (Cromwell dies of malaria in September 1658).
In Britain – CHARLES II is installed as king, and with the collaboration of the Church of England the persecution of Christian non-conformists begins. (Under restoration of the monarchy, CROMWELL's body is exhumed, beheaded, and placed on display until 1685).
State-church persecution
In Germany – Elector Palatine KARL LUDWIG grants concessions to Jews living in Mannheim, in return for which they are obligated to build two-story dwelling houses using Jewish and Christian workers.
January 30: In BritainThe decomposed bodies of Bradshawe, Cromwell and Ireton are dug up from their graves (on the anniversary of King CHARLES I rightful execution for treason) and their corpses are hanged at Tyburn before a huge crowd which includes the ladies of CHARLES II's court.
In Britain – The Great Plague kills about 100,000.
August 22: In England – Jews petition King Charles II , who grants them a formal written statement of toleration.
Lurianic rabbi, SHABBETAI TZEVI (SABBATAI ZVI) of Smyrna, is proclaimed Messiah by most Jewish communities of Europe and the Middle East.
Another False Messiah
Rabbi TZEVI is arrested by the Ottoman government and then converts to Islam. His closest supporters teach that he has become a Muslim to challenge God to accelerate the redemption of the Jewish people and the movement persists in various Jewish sects into the 19th century.
Britain – The Great Fire of London burns for four days (some believe instigated by CHARLES II in revenge on the city for the execution of his father), destroying 13,200 homes, 87 parish churches, St. Paul's Cathedral and most of the buildings of the City authorities, but did not reach, the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. The Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor) on Pudding Lane, destroying the homes of 70,000 of the City's 80,000 inhabitants, and it was possibly accidental.
Click for copy of
The London Gazette
September 8, 1666
describing the fire
Hubert is executed for starting the Great Fire of London. The fire damaged around 13,200 homes, around 80 percent of the old city, displacing around 70,000 to 80,000 people, luckily very few were killed, around eight. Robert Hubert confessed to the crime and was hanged on Oct. 27, 1666.
However, it is widely believed that his confession was false and he was innocent.
Evidence supporting this is that Robert Hubert was not even in London at the time, nor even in England. A Swedish captain of the Maid of Stockholm, testified that he had landed Robert Hubert two days after the fire had started (though this testimony was given several years after the event transpired). Hubert also originally confessed to starting the fire in Westminster, but after finding out that it started in a bakery in Pudding Lane, he then claimed he tossed a grenade into its window. However, the bakery not only lacked a window for him to throw it into, Robert Hubert was also severely crippled making it nearly impossible for him to throw it.
In London – The city becomes a gold trading centre when Jewish MOSES MOCATTA sets up his merchant business.
Berlin, Germany – The Great Elector grants 50 well-to-do Jewish families, driven from Vienna, a temporary right of settlement in Brandenburg (See 1812).
In BritainThe Test Act deprives Catholics and Christian non-conformists of public office.
In Britain – The Scottish Covenanters are suppressed.
A Jubilee Year c.1680
See Leviticus 25.
Pope INNOCENT XI orders the closing of the Jewish banks in Rome and throughout the papal states.
In Hungary – During the siege of Buda, the Jews are accused of aiding its Turkish defenders.
In Italy – Pogroms against the Jews.
March: In France – LOUIS XIV, the Sun King, authorizes the Slave Code (Black Code) in sixty articles regulating the life, death, purchase, religion, and treatment of slaves by their masters in all French colonies. It provides that the slaves should be baptised and educated in the Catholic faith. It prohibits masters from making their slaves work on Sundays and religious holidays. It requires that slaves be clothed and fed and taken care of when sick. It prohibits slaves from owning property and states that they had no legal capacity. It also governs their marriages, their burials, their punishments, and the conditions they have to meet in order to gain their freedom.
See: 1794, 1802
and 1817.
Voltaire writes:
“the Black Code only serves to show that the legal scholars consulted by Louis XIV  had no ideas regarding human rights.”
In Jerusalem, Palestine – Following the military victory of Austria, Poland and Venice over the Ottomans, the Franciscans are given charge of the Holy Sepulchre Church.
November: In Britain – In the 'Glorious Revolution', Protestant king William of the Dutch royal house of Orange, who is married to Mary, former heir-apparent of England, invades and becomes king, by the overthrow Catholic monarch King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland). (See: 1745).
1692: May
Not one of the people accused of witchcraft during the witch trials in Salem, Massacbsetts, America, was burned at the stake, as history would have us believe. Several dozen people were tortured and hanged. The myth of purification by fire is the source of this legend.
In Prague – a large crucifix with the words 'Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts' in gold Hebrew letters is erected on Charles Bridge by the Jewish community in expiation for an act of blasphemy by a Jew.
In Jerusalem, Palestine – Chaplain of the English Levant Company, HENRY MAUNDRELL, describes Christian pilgrims emotional reactions to ceremonies as "madness" and "Bedlam itself" and is particularly disgusted by the murderous rage and fanaticism between competing Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic clergy at the Tomb of Christ.
In London – Limitation of the number of 'Jew Brokers' in the City to twelve.
  1703 In Jerusalem, Palestine – The people revolt against the cruel taxation of their Turkish governor, JURJI MUHAMMAD PASHA. Led by AL-HUSANI, all prisoners are freed and the governor flees.
November: Jerusalem is attacked by the displaced JURJI MUHAMMAD with 2000 Janissaries and reoccupied.
For centuries, England attempted to conquer Scotland until this date. In 1707, Scotland enters into a political union with the Kingdom of England to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. That alliance rests uneasy with a narrowly-lost 2014 referendum to separate from Britain, and the current discussion to separate as a consequence of Brexit.
One of the early attempts to conquer Scotland had been in 1296 under King Edward I. As was often the case, Scotland buttressed its defences against England by reaching out to European nations, especially France. William Wallace, glamorized by Hollywood in the movie Braveheart, played a minor part: The site of the battle of Stirling Bridge "The Scots had allied with the French against the English before, notably during the reigns of Henry II and John; faced with the increasing intrusiveness of Edward's overlordship it was natural that they should do so again.
A Franco-Scottish treaty is duly sealed at Paris in October 1295; the 'Auld Alliance' against England (as it came to be known) would be a mainstay of the foreign policies of both countries for the next two hundred and fifty or so years. By this time, however, Edward was already bent on war with Scotland. ...
Edward summoned his magnates to muster at Newcastle upon Tyne the following March (1296), at the beginning of the campaigning season. The composition of his army was a striking demonstration of the power he wielded across the British Isles, including as it did men from England, Wales, Ireland and, indeed, Scotland. Edward marched on Berwick, demanding its inhabitants submit to his authority; and when they refused, he took the town by assault. Contemporary customs of war held that the inhabitants of any town that refused to come to terms with their overlord were rebels and, as such, had no right to quarter. Nor did they get any.
A terrible massacre follows, and the surviving inhabitants are expelled. ...
Lady Mary Montagu
Lady Mary Montagu
promotes inoculation
In Jerusalem, Palestine – Local Arab 'UMAR AL-NIMR, from Nablus, governs Jerusalem effectively.
In England – Lady MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU begins to propagate the Turkish practice of inoculating against smallpox with a weakened strain of the virus which she had learned in Istanbul, in spite of opposition from Christian clergy who see smallpox as God's judgment.
In Jerusalem, Palestine – The Jewish Ashkenazic community falls into such debt for the rental of their land and houses that their property is confiscated and they leave the city. About 200 of their families move to Hebron, Safed and Damascus.
Jews of Jerusalem are thus predominantly Sephardic.
Franciscans refurbish the mosaics in the Holy Sepulchre Church, but other Christian clergy at the Church (Greek, Coptic, Armenian) are virtual prisoners as the Turkish authorities keep the keys and leaving the building could result in loss of possession.
American Indians/First Nations
encounter Spanish horses
In North America – The Dakota Sioux, driven from their woodlands into the Plains by the Chippewas using guns, encounter horses for the first time.
A Jubilee Year c.1729
See Leviticus 25.
In France – When king Louis XIV's wars brought so much debt, the French Government called on the Scotsman John Law to solve its financial problems. It ultimately resulted in the famed Mississippi Bubble which bankrupted thousands in France and left the government in even greater debt. Law's plan was simple -- set up a commercial company for trading and other activities that the government would largely own. Profits from this company -- primarily overseas trading in the New World -- would be used to pay down the governments debt. Of course there were not enough profits and the venture soon failed.
The second part of Law's plan was to start a new bank, Banque Generale Privee, which would sell shares, issue its own de novo currency, and use those proceeds to lend to the government to pay off its debt. Shares in this bank skyrocketed, but the business of the bank fell short of expectations, and as a result the public both sold shares and tried to redeem currency for gold, causing the bank to fail in 1720 -- a second, interrelated, simultaneous catastrophe. It forestalled the development of modern banking in France, and more importantly, led to the increased taxes that were ultimately a component of foment that led to the French Revolution of 1789. Law died destitute and in disgrace in 1729.
XIV's extensive wars had left an enormous national debt and to deal with it the regent called in the Scottish economic theorist and adventurer John Law. Law proceeded to set up a government-backed central bank, like those already operating successfully in London and Amsterdam, which would not only move France beyond the cumbersome use of metal money, but would stimulate trade by increasing the money supply. "The bank boomed after he set up an associated trading company which was granted a monopoly of trade with the West Indies and North America. Within a few years Law controlled not only the lucrative slave and tobacco trade, but also the printing of money and the collection of taxes –
in effect monopolizing both France's foreign trade and its finances."
  1733 In Palestine – 'UMAR AL-NIMR is again appointed as governor of Jerusalem.  
In Britain – The Jacobite Rebellion begins, a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, by enthroning Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie). (See: November 1688).
Bonnie Prince
Charles Stuart
In England – Evangelistic preacher JOHN WESLEY writes his "PRIMITIVE PHYSICK, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases", as practical medical advice for those who could not afford doctors, selling at one shilling, containing rules for healthy living and 900 recipes for the treatment of 288 different ailments. It is reprinted 23 times in his life time.
Wesley's social concern
(see Gin Plague painting
of Hogarth below left)
JACOB FRANK proclaims himself Jewish Messiah and reincarnation of SHABBETAI TZEVI. His movement practices sexually promiscuous orgiastic rites. (see 1756)
BAAL SHEM (founder of Jewish Hasidism) circulates the 'Holy Epistle' describing his ascent to Heaven. (Baal Shem believes in panentheism/'God-is-in-everything').
adopts the Gregorian calendar. Benjamin Franklin writes,
"It is pleasant for an old man to be able to go to bed on Sept. 2, and not have to get up until Sept. 14."
Nearly two weeks evaporated into thin air in England when it transitioned from the Julian calendar, which had left the country 11 days behind much of Europe.
Calendar Change
The "Jew Bill" is passed in England.
Jewish communities ban FRANK's movement as heretical. FRANK and his followers are baptised into the Roman Catholic church but keep their own separate organization.
Known as the Seven Years War, it was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines.
The war arose out of the attempt of the Austrian Habsburgs to win back the rich province of Silesia, which had been wrested from them by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48). But the Seven Years’ War also involved overseas colonial struggles between Great Britain and France. It is the last major conflict before the French Revolution to involve all the great powers of Europe. Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain on the other.
Under French political influence the Franciscan's custodianship of the Holy Sepulchre is confirmed and the 'Tomb of the Virgin' in Kidron Valley is added to their control.
October 25: King George II of Great Britian dies after falling off a toilet seat. Apparently the fall caused a rupture in the right ventricle of the 77-year-old king's heart.
In Poland – Right of last appeal to a Jewish tribunal (bet-din) by Jews in criminal cases is now ended.
Ukraine massacres 1768
June 21: In Uman, Ukraine – After destroying a number of Jewish cities, MAKSYM ZALIZNIAK, a Zaporizhian Cossack and leader of the Koliyivschyna Ukrainian peasant rebellion, together with IVAN GONTA, leads terrible massacres of Poles and Jews in vengeance for cruelties suffered by the peasants.
Jewish month:
Tammuz 5 (June-July)
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN ('HA-GRA') in Vilna, Lithuania, the cultural capital of eastern European Jewry, vigorously opposes Hasidism until his death in 1797, insisting on the intellectual love of God according to Talmudic and Midrashic traditions.
Vancouver Island
before George Vanouver
or James Cook
Chinese Vancouver 1776
The Antonio Zatta map (a Venetian explorer who travelled with one of the first Russian exploratory missions to the area) describes Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) as :"Colonia dei Chinesi" (a Chinese Colony).
In America –
on July 4, the Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to declare their independence from Great Britain and create the United States of America. It wasn't until three decades later that the Roman Empire was dissolved, when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his throne in 1806, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Republic of Venice imposes heavier restrictions on the Jews living in the ghetto.
The Gin Plague

18th century London, as per Hogarth
'Drinking and Stealing'
See Leviticus 25.
In Poland – Jewish JACOB FRANK (יעקב פרנק Ya'akov Frank) claims to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed Jewish messiah Sabbatai Zevi and also of Israel's King David.
Another Sabbatai Dönmeh
cult fraud
Jewish community before the 1782 Edict of Tolerance
During the Middle Ages, Austrian Jews had lived apart from the Orthodox communities and had not been allowed by the government to own immovable property. Although this was not the case for the more affluent Jews, those who were wealthy and were able to establish factories were recipients of preferential treatment by the emperor's mother Maria Theresa, but otherwise there were restrictions on the rest of the Jewish population. Emperor Joseph II is the first Austrian emperor to make an attempt to eliminate these attitudes and sanctions toward the majority of the Jewish population.
January 2: In Austria – The Edict of Toleration is issued by Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and extended to Jews the freedom to pursue all branches of commerce, but also imposes new requirements.
Jews are required either to create German-language primary schools, or send their children to Christian schools (Jewish schools had previously taught children to read and write Hebrew, in addition to math.)
It also permits Jews to attend state secondary schools. However, a series of laws issued soon after the Edict of Toleration abolishes the autonomy of the Jewish communities, which had previously run their own court, charity, internal taxation and school systems; requires Jews to acquire family names; makes Jews subject to military conscription; and required candidates for the rabbinate to have secular educations.
The Edict allows Jews to practice agriculture, trades, and professions, to set up large businesses, and to attend schools and universities.
Switzerland – The last legal execution of a witch takes place.
January: In France – A royal decree abolishes the corporal tax (péage corporel) on Jews, which had seemed to ranked them 'alongside animals'.
In Palestine – CONSTANTIN VOLNEY of France makes the first scientific survey of the geography, climate, economy, and social life of Jerusalem. He reports –
"Each [Christian] sect is perpetually informing against the other for irregularities. Has a church been clandestinely repaired; or a procession extended beyond the usual limits; has a Pilgrim entered by a different gate from the customary? All these are the subject of accusations to the Government [Ottoman Turkish], which never fails to profit from them in fines and extortions."
In France – Civil equality is granted to Protestant Christians.
August: In France – DAVID SINTZHEIM, as delegate to the National Constituent Assembly, calls for emancipation of Jews in eastern France and protests against acts of violence against Jews in Alsace and Lorraine.
August 26: In France – The Declaration of Human Rights is adopted, but it is still another two years before Jews enjoy full civil rights, and another hundred years before Algerian Jews are granted citizenship (see October 1870).
December 23: In the French Constituent Assembly, Count STANISLAS DE CLERMONT-TONNERRE declares –
"To the Jews as a nation, nothing; to the Jews as individuals, everything ...They must not form a political corps or an Order in the state; they must be citizens individually."
January 28: In France – 4,000 Jews in the south-west obtain citizenship.
September 27: In France – All Jews are emancipated by the National Assembly, and those in Alsace become citizens.
Alsace, France – Anti-Jewish violence erupts. Jewish cemeteries are destroyed and synagogues closed down.
February 4: In France – Slavery is abolished.
In Italy – NAPOLEON BONAPARTE's army puts an end to the Age of the Ghetto and proclaims the emancipation of Italian Jewry.
August 3: In America – GEORGE WASHINGTON realizes that due to a clerical error that he had "not more than 9 cartridges [of gunpowder] a man", an american deserter conveyes the information to the British: "Washington had found that due to a misunderstanding in reporting on the amount of gunpowder, the amount available is in short supply. He informs the generals at a war council at the Cambridge headquarters. The report indicates there are approximately ninety barrels of powder in the magazines at Cambridge and Roxbury. A suggestion is put forward to make an attempt with 300 men on the British magazine in Halifax. This was not acted upon. The other suggestion is to get supplies from the neighboring provinces of Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. "The next day Washington writes to Congress, 'But on ordering a new supply of cartridges yesterday, I was informed to my very great astonishment, that there was no more than 36 Bbbl [barrels]. in the Massachusetts store, which added to the stock of Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Connecticut makes 9940 lb. not more than 9 cartridges a man.'
Elias Boudinot Elizabeth of New jersey, writes in his journal:
When our Army lay before Boston in 1775 our powder was so nearly expended that General Washington told me that he had not more than eight rounds a man, although he had then near fourteen miles of line to guard, and that he dare not give an evening or morning gun. In this situation one of the Committee of Safety for Massachusetts, who was privy to the whole secret, de­serted and went over to General Gage, and discovered our poverty to him. The fact was so incredible that Gen­eral Gage treated it as a stratagem of war, and the infor­mant as a spy, or coming with the express purpose of deceiving him and drawing his army into a snare, by which means we were saved from having our quarters beaten up.
Emperor NAPOLEON ends the Malta slave trade in Jews.
January: In Palestine – NAPOLEON BONAPARTE dispatches 13,000 French troops to conquer Ottoman Palestine.
In retaliation Muslim's attack St Saviours church in Jerusalem.
Politics of a Seduced Bride
NAPOLEON offers Palestine as a homeland for Jews under French protection and call on Jews to rise against their oppressors.
Palestine – The French army is hit by bubonic plague, but advance to Acre where they are repelled by the British navy and the army of AHMAD JEZZAR PASHA.
Italy – Alessandro Volta invents the electric 'pile'/battery.
March 3: In America – DAVID EMANUEL takes office as the Governor of Georgia, the first Jewish person to serve as a governor in the United States. Emanuel is appointed to serve the last eight months of the term of his predecessor who has assumed a seat in the U.S. Senate.
At the Battle of
Copenhagen, Britain's Horatio Nelson holds a telescope up to his blind eye to review his Commander’s (Sir Hyde Parker) signal flags ordering his retreat and announces "I really do not see the signal!" to his second in command, and continues his attack to victory against Napoleon.
July 16: In France – Slavery is reinstated by a decree.
April 30: In Paris – The United States and France sign the Louisiana Purchase Treaty by which the United States purchases 828,000 square miles (2,144,000 square kilometres or 529,920,000 acres) of territory from France of its claim to Louisiana for 50 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), for a total sum of 15 million dollars (around 4 cents per acre) for the Louisiana territory (equivalent of $236 million in 2013 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre).
US President Thomas Jefferson announces the Treaty to the American people on July 4th, and it is stated that the Louisiana Purchase is a noble work and that the US can now take its place among the powers of the so-called 'first rank'.
Western Imperialism
of course
in disregard of the
indigenous inhabitants
American expansion westward into the 'new lands' begins immediately..!
[Based on an analysis of old French maps, the United States claims West Florida (an area along the Gulf Coast in present-day Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana).
Spain disputes this until 1819, when the Adams-Onís Treaty gives the United States all of Florida in exchange for surrendering its claim to Texas.
In the north, Great Britain and the United States agree in 1818 to establish the 49th parallel as the border between them from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.]
Louisiana Purchase
Vente de la Louisiane
December 2: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French.
In 1998 a research team

Slave abuse by US President
headed by Dr. Eugene Foster, a retired pathologist at the University of Virginia, obtains blood samples containing Thomas Jefferson's Y chromosome from a living descendant and from several descendants in His slave Sally Hemings line. The results, published in the prestigious scientific magazine Nature and released to the press on Halloween Day, 1998, showed a match between Jefferson and Eston Hemings, Sally's last child. The chances of such a match occurring randomly were less than one in a thousand. This constituted conclusive evidence that Jefferson fathered at least one of his slave Sally's children and, in conjunction with the pre-existent circumstantial evidence, made it highly probable that a long-term sexual relationship existed between them.
US President fathers
at least one child
from his slave.
August 6: In Germany – Emperor FRANCIS II (Franz II., Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) abdicates, marking the end of the Holy Roman Empire after his decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
'Holy Roman Empire' ends
In Jerusalem – the Holy Sepulchre Church is gutted by fire.
May 17: In France – Emperor NAPOLEON decrees that Jewish shopkeepers must apply to the local prefect annually for a trading licence and for permission to trade in some economic fields.
Jews are not allowed to settle in Alsace or to move without special permission.
They may not use Hebrew in commercial transactions, and limits may be set on Jewish immigration.
December 11: NAPOLEON decrees that Jews throughout France are to be under a state-supervised system of control. Where they number more than 2,000 in an administrative region (département), 13 regions at this time, they are to establish a synagogue, each of which is led by a rabbi and a layman appointed by Jewish notables and approved by the civil authorities. Each Jewish 'consistory' is to act as liaison between local Jews and the government, collect dues, supervise Jewish religion, educational services, and loyalty to France.
The Central Consistory in Paris is to be headed by a Chief Rabbi, obliged to wear a priestly mitre, who coordinates general Jewish affairs. Their first Chief Rabbi is German born DAVID SINTZHEIM (see 1789).
April 15 – May 31: The First Serbian Revolutionary War, near Fortress of Niš, against the Ottoman Empire.
When the tides of war change and it becomes clear that the Turks will win, Serbian commander Stevan Sinđelić sacrifices himself and the remaining Serbian forces in an unprecedented act of bravery, blowing up the gunpowder storage and taking out thousands of enemy soldiers in the process. In order to silence the rebellion and frighten the people,
Hurshid Pasha of of Niš then has a ten foot tower built using over 900 skulls of the fallen Serbian soldiers. He orders that the heads of the Serb victims be collected, skinned, and that the skulls be built into a tower.
This Tower of skulls is built along the road to Constantinople, as a warning to anyone rising against the Ottoman Empire.
Battle of Čegar
In Western Germany – Jews in Frankfurt (incorporated by NAPOLEON into the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806) are no longer obliged to live in the Ghetto as a consequence of the influence of French Revolutionary ideals.
Napoleon's Frankfurt
President James Madison
In Berlin, Germany – The size of the Jewish congregation in Brandenburg has grown to 3,300 members.
March 11: In Prussia – Jews obtain civil rights, but not full equality and are still excluded from state employment, after the edict of King FREDERICK WILLIAM. Full equality is only available to them after 'Christian' baptism.
June 18: The United States of America (President James Madison) declares war on the United Kingdom.
October 16-19: Near Leipzig, south-east Saxony, Germany – The French forces of Emperor NAPOLEON are defeated in a battle leaving dead about 38,000 French soldiers (including Polish and Italian troops as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine) and 55,000 allied soldiers of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden.
March 29: In Denmark – Jews are given equal rights.
April 1: In France – Freedom of religion for Jews is restored.
June 18, Sunday: In Europe – In the Battle of Waterloo 55 Jewish artillerymen (under the Prussian flagKingdom of Prussia in the Seventh Coalition fighting the French forces) are killed, but their widows receive no pension because from 1815 onward Jewish volunteers had no claim to any provision by the state.
 In the
United States – American Secretary of State (later President) JAMES MONROE removes Jewish MORDECAI NOAH from being US Consul in Tunis (Muslim country) because –
"the religion which you profess [is] an obstacle to the exercise of your consular functions" (emphasis mine).
In GermanyThe brothers JACOB and WILHELM GRIMM compose 'The Jew in the Thorn-Bush' which expresses the 'demonic' character of the Jew in Germanic thought.
Britain – The Duke of Wellington's military campaign in France (against Napoleon) is financed by Jewish NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD.
In France – The slave trade is banned, but some traders in Nantes continue the cruel and now illegal practice.
See: 1848
In Jerusalem – The Greek Orthodox buy the right to rebuild the Holy Sepulchre Church.
Muslims object, which leads to a full scale rebellion that is put down by Muslim troops from Damascus. The heads of 46 of the ringleaders are sent to Damascus.
The Greek Orthodox Church erases all history of a Latin presence at the site, and the graves of King BALDWIN I and GODREY of Bouillon are thrown out.
No Christian sect can be trusted with the door key of the Holy Sepulchre Church, so it is given to a local Muslim family to control.
In Germany – citizens of Würzburg, Heidelberg, Frankfurt, and Hamburg, riot against Jews, plundering Jewish shops, as they chant the old Crusader war-cry 'Hep hep' (Hierosolyma est perdita – Jerusalem is lost).
 In Bosnia
Governor RUZDI PASHA uses a trumped-up charge to levy the Jews of Sarajevo for 50,000 Groschen. He later increases this to 500,000 to be paid within three days, imprisons ten of Sarajevo's leading Jews (among whom is Rabbi MOSHE DANON) and threatens to execute them if the fine is not paid.
The night before the execution, contrary to custom on Sabbath-eve, observant Jew RAFAEL LEVI goes out to seek the aid of the Muslim community. In the morning three-thousand Muslims under leadership of AHMED BARJAKTAR BJELAVSKI, a local commander of the Bjelave neighbourhood of Jews and Muslims, storm the gates of the Governor's palace and rescue Rabbi DANON and the rest of the prisoners, then march to the local synagogue where the story of Purim is recounted to them.
(Accordingly, the rescue is later dubbed the Sarajevo Purim).
Subsequently, 249 Muslim dignitaries attach their signatures to a document addressed to the Turkish Sultan denouncing the cruelty of RUZDI PASHA.
Muslims rescue Jews
In Britain – Anti-Semite and radical social reformer, WILLIAM COBBETT, publicly attacks 'Jew-dogs' who turn London into a 'Jew Wen'.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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