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1821    to    1897

– subject to continuing refinement –
In Prussia – Jews are excluded from teaching-posts in universities and schools unless they convert to Christianity.
anti-Semitism grows
In Jerusalem – MUSTAFA PASHA of Damascus raises taxes to ten times their former rate. Troops are sent from Damascus to quell the resultant uprising. On their departure the Ottoman garrison is expelled and all non-Muslims are driven from Jerusalem.
ABDALLAH PASHA, Ottoman governor of Sidon, besieges Jerusalem for a week with 2000 troops and 7 cannons and continuous bombard from the Mount of Olives. However, the Ottoman Turks agree to return taxes to their earlier level and that all officials in Jerusalem shall be Arabs.
A Jubilee Year c.1827
Leviticus 25.
In the US – The novelist Washington Irving is commissioned to write a biography of Columbus, with the brief that he depict Columbus as a radical thinker who turned his back on the superstitions of the old world. Unfortunately Irving found that Columbus was actually wildly wrong about the size of the earth and discovered America by pure chance. Since this did not make a very heroic story, he invented the myth that the Medieval Church taught the earth was flat, and so created this persistent myth when his book became a best-seller.
flat-earth idea
is a myth
invented by an
American author to
make Columbus
look good,
is still
in the medieval period were well aware of the proofs that the earth was spherical produced by the Greeks and the idea that the earth was round seems to have been common knowledge, even amongst the less educated, but Irving's myth spread. And it was not only the learned who knew the shape of the earth – all evidence indicates that this was commonly understood by everyone. For instance a symbol of the earthly power of kings, used in their coronations, was the orb: a golden sphere held in the king's left hand to represent the earth. Also, in the popular Fourteenth Century English book of travellers' tales, the Tales of Sir John Mandeville, tells of a man who travelled so far East that he returned to his homeland from the West, while not needing to explain to its audience how this works. The spherical shape of the earth was generally known from ancient times! The fact that the earth is a sphere was so well known, widely accepted and unremarkable that when Thomas Aquinas wanted to choose an objective fact that is not able to be disputed early in his Summa Theologica he chose the fact that the earth is round as his example. And lastly, the primary text on cosmology used in medieval universities, John Sacrobosco's De sphaera mundi, has a title which means "the sphere of the world" and set out the primary proofs of the earth's sphericity.
December 4: Widow burning (suttee) is banned in British India.
Christians rediscover
'Israel' in prophecy.
Satan's Prime Tactic
In England – IRVING, DRUMMOND, and J.N. DARBY develop the pre-Tribulation Rapture theory which separates between Christ's return for His church and His return to Israel.
JN DARBY promotes the doctrine as part of a dispensational interpretation of history.
Through the Bible notes of lawyer, Dr. C.I. SCOFIELD, the teaching spreads among Christians to become dominant in many evangelical circles world-wide.
Christ's second-coming teaching is
now corrupted by splitting it into two: (1) for His Church; (2) for national Israel, with a 7-year-Great-Tribulation gap between the
two Comings.
November: IBRAHIM PASHA conquers Palestine and Jerusalem for MUHAMMAD 'ALI of Egypt, resulting in nine years of equality with Muslims before the law for Jews and Christians.
July 29: In London – The British Parliament passes the Slavery Abolition Act (the slave trade was outlawed in 1807) outlawing the holding of slaves within the British Empire.
The British Empire ends slavery
In Jerusalem – Many Christian monasteries are damaged by an earthquake.
The whole of Palestine revolts and for five days mobs of Muslims rampage in Jerusalem against Jews and Christians, but the rebellion is crushed by Egypt.
In Cincinnati, Ohio, America – Lane Seminary, allows its students to hold a series of debates about two questions:
   (1) Should slavery be immediately abolished?
   (2) Should Christians support colonization?
Theodore Dwight Weld, an experienced and persuasive talker, takes the lead. ...
For eighteen days, regular classes are suspended while the students and guest speakers discuss the questions. ...
Almost to a man, the students convert to the radical, unpopular idea of immediate abolition of slavery without compensation to owners. To slave owners, abolition means the loss of an enormous and essential investment.
It was not just southern plantation masters, for cotton, grown in the South by slaves, is processed in northern factories.
It is a critical asset of the young republic.
Businessmen north and south insist that the end of slavery would bring the nation's commerce to its knees. ...
America's first
great student protests
In New York, USA – The The Sun newspaper describes what it claims the respected astronomer John Herschel has seen through his telescope from the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa (plants, animals and flying men on the Moon), perpetrating a long-lived hoax. It is introduced as –
"...recent discoveries in Astronomy which will build an imperishable monument to the age in which we live,
and confer upon the present generation of the human race a proud distinction through all future time."

Richard Adams Locke's
abortive satire
Jewish ancestry
June 7: ALOIS (ADOLPH HITLER's father) is born illegitimately, to the 19 year old Jewish FRANKENBERGER of Graz, from his father's ex-employee, their 42-year-old sewing-maid (MARIA SCHICKELGRUBER, HITLER's paternal grandmother). (See 1876).
Britain – Jewish Christian, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, is elected as Member of Parliament, serving as Prime Minister for a few months in 1868, and again from 1874–1880.
In Palestine – American archaeologist EDWARD ROBINSON visits Jerusalem and crawls through the water tunnel built by HEZEKIAH. (His "Biblical Researches in Palestine" is published in 1841).
In Trieste, Italy – Jews are described in the fascist manifesto as – "a separate and in-assimilable race."
September: The London Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews (known as the 'London Jews Society') is given permission to work in Jerusalem.
In Paris – A majority of Jews in the city are foreign born.
  In Palestine – French photographer, FESQUET, begins to photograph the 'Holy Land'.
Catholic anti-Semitism 1840
In SyriaRoman Catholic Franciscans of Damascus initiate anti-Jewish pogroms in the city.
In France – The first Jewish deputies are elected to the legislature.
In Jerusalem – A Jewish clinic is set up by British Jewish philanthropist Sir MOSES MONTEFIORE, and the Christian "London Jews Society" establishes a hospital offering free medicine on the borders of the Jewish Quarter.
May 21: In Jerusalem – Three Jews are baptised into the Christian Church in a Hebrew ceremony at the Hebrew Christ Church next door to the British Consulate.
October 13: In New York – Twelve American Jews meet in a café to found B'nai B'rith for the welfare relief of needy Jews.
October 22: American Adventists' predicted Return of CHRIST fails.
In France – ALPHONSE DE TOUSSENEL publishes his very successful book Les Juifs, Rois de l'Époque to denounce Jewish bankers, especially the ROTHSCHILDS, and Jewish railway builders. This view undoubtedly influenced KARL MARX.
France – KARL MARX (a Jew) blames the Jew for corrupting the world –
"Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist. Money abases all the gods of mankind and changes them into commodities. ...It has, therefore, deprived the whole world, both the human world and nature, of their own proper value. ...The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world." (Johnson, 1987:351).
In France
virulently anti-Jewish writer, PIERRE-JOSEPH PROUDHON, concludes a diatribe against them with –
"Satan, Ahriman, was incarnated in the race of Sem".
And, that Jews must be either sent back to Asia or exterminated.
England – CHARLES DARWIN drafts his theory of Evolution in an essay. A theory which later in Germany is used to justify the application of animal-husbandry principles to human life, resulting eventually in the Holocaust.
Russia – Jewish MOSHKO, the maternal great-grandfather of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin of the later 1918 Russian Bolshevik revolution, converts to the Russian Orthodox Church.
In France – Juridical inferiority of Jews is ended when the Cour de Cassation ends the more judaïco, which required Jewish defendants and witnesses to take an oath in a synagogue.
April 6:
In Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa – Auctioneer and prominent citizen Jewish JOSHUA D NORDEN is appointed commanding officer of the citizen military force, then known as Graham's Town Yeomanry (known today as First City Regiment, and in which the author of this website also did regimental service).
Captain of the Grahams Town Yeomanry
in a vigourous attempt to repel the inroads
of a barbarous enemy
 He fell gloriously on the 25th day of April 1846 
at the head of his troop
near Grahams Town
 Deeply lamented by his Friends and Comrades 
By whom this tribute of respect is raised
as a memorial
of his intrepidity and bravery
In Buffalo Kloof, Woest Hill, ten miles east of Grahamstown –
     Jewish Captain JD NORDEN is shot dead by the attacking Xhosa warriors.

His memorial plaque in Grahamstown's cathedral of St Michael and St George reads –

Jewish death in
War of the Axe
in South Africa
In Ottoman Palestine – A violent brawl between Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox clergy in the Nativity Church (Bethlehem) leads to political dispute between France (for the Catholic clergy) and Russia (for the Orthodox clergy) over 'protection' of the holy places. In the face of Russian demands to exercise supervision over the Orthodox Church subjects of the Ottoman rulers, Britain supports the Ottoman Turks.
(War breaks out in Crimea between the parties from 1853-56, costing the lives of about 500,000 men).
In Utah, North America – The Mormon settlers ('Latter Day Saints' religionists) invade the area by wagon train, massacre the local indigenous inhabitants (North-western Shoshone), and establish their settlement, later known as Salt Lake City.
In Vienna, Austria – The Jewish population of the city reaches 4,000. Many Jewish intellectuals joined the revolutionary forces (consisting mostly of liberal students and nationalists). The “Pillersdorf constitution” grants full civil rights and religious freedom to all religious groups of the Empire including Jews. A number of Jews are elected to the Parliament, the Jewish tax is removed, as are the restrictive marriage laws.
27: In France – Slavery is definitively abolished by a decree on the initiative of VICTOR SCHOELCHER. The Slavery 'Black Code' of 1685 had effectively remained in force for 163 years.
In Britain – Cholera outbreaks occur.
September: In Cape Town, South Africa – JOHN FAIRBAIRN (Fairburn) through his newspaper motivates the city's residents to oppose by total boycott the British government's decision to establish a penal colony for 'ticket-of-leave' (on parole) convicts at the Cape. He is particularly moved by a personal Christian concern for its possible effect on the Cape's indigenous Khoikhoi population. The British colonial office maintains that the prisoners are Irish peasants driven to crime by famine and are unlikely to repeat their crimes in a new environment.
In spite of harassment and intimidation from the Cape governor (Sir Harry Smith), with the help of the local citizens he succeeds and the British convict ship Neptune with 286 prisoners is forced to sail onward to Tasmania (Van Diemen's Land).
One man can
make a difference.
In Palestine – FELICIEN DE SAULCY claims that the 1st century 'Tomb of the Kings', built by the Queen of Adiabene is the Tomb of David and the Kings of Judah, without any attempt at proof, in order to cast doubt on Protestant speculations. (see 1863).
Germany – RICHARD WAGNER in his polemic 'Jewry in Music' claims that Jews are unable to master German.
in Jerusalem
In Palestine – American engineer JAMES BARCLAY visits Jerusalem to advise its Ottoman rulers on the preservation of the Mamluk madâris. At the Western Wall he discovers the huge lintel stone of one of the gates of HEROD's Temple. (Later known as 'Barclay's Gate').
In Palestine – EDWARD ROBINSON visits Jerusalem and excavates an arch that once supported the entrance bridge to the Temple over the Tyropoeon Valley (see 1838). (Now known as 'Robinson's Arch').
In Jerusalem – The Misgav Ladach Hospital is established by the Jewish ROTHCHILD family.
In Palestine – The Ottoman Sultan, in recognition of Britain's part in the Crimean War, allows Sir MOSES MONTEFIORE to ascend the Temple Mount (Haram) in Jerusalem, carried in a sedan chair (lest his feet touch forbidden areas) while he recites Psalm 121.
Britain also insists that Jews be allowed to extend the Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem.
  1856 In Jerusalem – There are about 4,000 Sephardim; and about 1,700 Ashkenazic Jews.
In Palestine – Sir MOSES MONTEFIORE builds houses for impoverished Jewish families in West Jerusalem.
11: In Mountain Meadows, southern Utah, USA – The brutal murder of 120 men, women, and children is carried out by Mormons (self-styled Latter Day Saints) in the massacre of wagon loads of Arkansas emigrants as they headed through southwestern Utah on their way to California.
June 5: In the North Atlantic – A tsunami strikes the British Isles, French, Danish, Dutch and German coasts, simultaneously moving east through the English Channel and southward through the North Sea.
23: In Bologna, Italy – Six-year-old Jewish boy, EDGUARDO MORTARA, is abducted from his family home by police of the papal states and placed under the care of the Catholic Church in Rome to be raised accordingly,
because five years earlier a Catholic servant had baptised the child when she thought he was dying.  (see 1860).
In spite of a general outcry against the abduction, Pope PIUS IX refuses to give way and the boy remains in Catholic hands (see 1860, France).
23: In Britain – The British Oath of Allegiance is modified to allow Jews to sit in Parliament.
26: The 'emancipation' of British Jews, and Jewish Lord Rothschild takes his seat in the House of Lords, but never speaks. (See 1874).
Vienna, Austria – The synagogue of Vienna is built, one of the most elaborate in Europe.
September 1-2: A powerful geomagnetic solar storm during solar cycle 10 (1855–1867). A solar coronal mass ejection hit Earth's magnetosphere and induced one of the largest geomagnetic storms on record
In France – The unredressed outrage over EDGUARDO MORTARA (see 1858) leads directly to the formation of the French Alliance Israelite Universelle, by ADOLPHE CRÉMIEUX, –
to 'reconcile Judaism with the modern world' and to 'defend the civil rights and religious freedom of the Jews'.
Through its influential school system and its commitment to the 1789 humanitarian principles the Alliance does much to extend French humanism nationally and internationally.
Communist MOSES HESS anticipates and encourages the rise of Jewish ethnic-nationalism (Zionist fascism) in his book 'Rome and Jerusalem', seeing a future "Sabbath of history" as a messianic age in fulfilment of Karl Marx's ideal state.
March 8: In
China – Arrogantly, a joint-ultimatum is issued to the Chinese Emperor outlining the French and British demands in the interest of their trading ambitions, namely:
A letter of apology for the attack on allied vessels on the Pei-ho river. (British, American and French ships had tried to force their way up the heavily defended Pei-ho (today the Hai River) and past the Taku forts in order to establish their diplomatic legations in Peking/Beijing).
•    Assurances that their allied envoys would receive unrestricted passage to Tien-tsin and Peking/Beijing.
Assurances that the Chinese government would ratify the treaty agreed at Tien-tsin in 1858. (A treaty agreed between the western powers and the Chinese Qing dynasty, supposedly bringing an end to the fighting).
•    Indemnity payment to cover the costs of their expedition.
Western Arrogance
First concept of space flight
See: Interplanetary Migration
1861, Rev William Leitch, a Scottish Presbyterian minister from Monimail near Cupar in Fife sets out his theories in his book God’s Glory in the Heavens, (published by a small Edinburgh publisher Alexander Strahan in 1862): ‘A Journey Through Space’,
"The only machine, independent of the atmosphere, we can conceive of, would be one on the principle of the rocket".
Space flight
William Leitch made his suggestion to use rockets four years before even Jules Verne’s famous “space gun.”
In the Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany – Jews enjoy full equal rights from this year.
America – 38 Santee Sioux Indian men are ordered to be executed by Abraham Lincoln for 'treaty violations' (IE: hunting off of their assigned reservation). So, on December 26, the "Great Emancipator" orders the largest mass execution in American History, where the guilt of those to be executed was entirely in doubt. Regardless of how Lincoln defenders seek to play this, it is nothing more than murder to obtain the land of the Santee Sioux and to appease his political cronies in Minnesota.
17: In southern US – Union general ULYSSES S GRANT orders the expulsion of all Jews from the territory under his command in the South.
American Anti-Semitism
In Palestine – Jerusalem's first municipal council (baladiyya al-quds) is formed consisting of 6 Muslims, 2 Christians, and 1 Jew, elected every four years. (Jewish quota is raised to 2 in 1908).
DE SAULCY returns to Jerusalem to continue his excavations at the so-called 'Tomb of the Kings' and encounters angry protests from Jews and Arabs over desecration of ancestral graves. (see 1850).
June: In Palestine – With permission of the Turkish governor of the city, British army captain CHARLES WILSON completes his detailed survey of Jerusalem, which leads to the founding of the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) for archaeological research with a lecture room at Jaffa Gate.
South America – War begins with Paraguay against Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
The conflict lasts until 1870 and results in approximately 400,000 fatalities.
Paraguay is left devastated, its territory temporarily occupied by Brazilian forces and its population decimated.
in 1885 Uruguay becomes the first country of their Triple Alliance to return its war trophies to Paraguay, thereby normalising relations between the two Latin American nations.
to 1868: In Finland FAMINE, known as "the great hunger years", or suuret nälkävuodet. About 8.5% of the entire population die of hunger; in the hardest-hit areas up to 20%. The total death toll was 270,000 in three years, about 150,000 in excess of normal mortality. The worst-hit areas were Satakunta, Tavastia, Ostrobothnia, and North Karelia. In Sweden, the year 1867 was known as Storsvagåret (The Year of Great Weakness) and, in Tornedalen, as Lavåret (The Lichen Year) because of the bark bread made of lichen. It contributed to the great rush of the Swedish emigration to the United States.
February: CHARLES WARREN, of the British Royal Engineers, arrives in Jerusalem. To circumvent prohibition on excavating Temple Mount (Haram) he rents private land on its southern border and sinks shafts and underground passages to Temple Mount. He discovers the Jebusite water conduit to the ancient Gihon spring (henceforth known as 'Warren's Shaft') referred to in 2 Samuel 5:8.
TWAIN, when visiting Palestine writes –
"...[a] desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given wholly over to weeds – a silent mournful expanse.. A desolation is here that not even imagination can grace with the pomp of life and action ..." (The Innocents Abroad).
KARL MARX publishes 'Das Kapital'.
Not an accurate
description. See
Asher Guinsberg
in 1891
In the
Austro-Hungarian Empire – Jews are granted full civil rights. Vienna is the city in the Habsburg Empire with the largest Jewish population.
The Moabite memorial stone is discovered in Jordan confirming the war of Israel with King MESHA of Moab described in 2 Kings 1:1; 3:4-27.
In France – GOUGENOT DES MOUSSEAUX publishes his virulently anti-Semitic Le Juif, Le Judäisme et La Judäisation des Peuples Chrétiens.
3: In the North German Confederation – BISMARCK issues a law concerning the full equality of religion in all civic and state matters, which effectively includes Jewish equality.
(After the Empire is proclaimed in 1871 this law applies in all Germany).
In Prussia – About 12,000 Jews are allowed to participate as full citizens in the Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870 to 10 May 1871).
October: Algerian Jews (about 35,000) are at last granted citizenship by French Minister of Justice ADOLPHE CRÉMIEUX.
In Jerusalem – The Austrian Emperor visits and is greeted in great admiration by its Jewish population there. The Emperor establishes a fund for aimed at financing the establishment of Jewish institutions and the established the Talmudic school for rabbis in Budapest.
At this time, Germany is still a patchwork of independent kingdoms, principalities and whatnot. The Prussian Prime Minister, Otto von Bismarck, is keen to unite all of these states into a single empire, but needed a common enemy for them all to fight. France fitted the bill perfectly, and so on 10 December 1870, Germany unifies. France has to pay out 5 billion francs in reparations arising from the Franco-Prussian War.
The average day laborer in Paris in 1871 earned about 1,500 francs per year (the current French minimum wage is 17,162 euros per year, so the conversion gives the reparations as near 57,208,800,000 euros currently.)
So the building of the German Reichstag is largely funded by these French reparations.
In Odessa, Russia – Greek merchants instigate a pogrom by the authorities against Jews.
In Germany – Proclamation of Empire. In the rest of this decade the newly founded empire is disturbed by financial scandals involving Jews and by Jewish immigration from across the Polish frontier. (See 1879).
Berlin, Germany – Professor of history HEINRICH VON TREITSCHKE (Prussian patriot of Saxon origin) initiates nationalist anti-Semitism with his speeches in Parliament (1871-1874) and in his publications, describing the Jew as hating democratic ideas and the ringleader of social democracy.
Jews in Germany are about 600,000.
Racial arrogance
becomes a
political movement
in Germany
England – CHARLES DARWIN elaborates his theory of Evolution in his 'Descent of Man'.
FRANCIS GALTON, cousin of CHARLES DARWIN, coins the term and develops the concept of Eugenics (the control of human society by biology). (See 1929, In Germany).
In Jerusalem – Orthodox Arab Christians start to campaign against their religious domination by Greeks. (see 1882).
In Vienna, Austria – At the Vienna World Fair, Christian archaeologist CONRAD SCHICK displays a detailed scale model of Jerusalem's Temple Mount four meters long and three meters wide. (It eventually finds its way to the St. Chrischona mission near Basel, Switzerland, where it remains for 138 years, before being bought in 2012 by Christ Church, near Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem).
Stock market crash in Germany and Austria.
In Palestine – Construction of Mea She'arim neighbourhood in Jerusalem begins.
Conquest of the Commanche
September 28: In Palo Duro Canyon, North America – Colonel Ranald Slidell MACKENZIE leads the Fourth Cavalry of Fort Concho, Texas, to destroy the Commanche, burning their tepees, stockpile of food and blankets, and the following day shoot dead 1,048 of their horses. A remnant of the Commanches walk 200-miles east, led by chief Quanah Parker, to Fort Sill to surrender, where their chief is imprisoned.
England – Benjamin Disraeli becomes Prime Minister.
At Mackenzie Hill, in America – General Philip SHERIDAN has his men shoot dead between 6,000 to 7,000 Commanche horses, the remainder are auctioned off to white bidders, to permanently break Commanche strength.
A Jubilee Year 1876
In Austria – ALOIS' parish birth record (HITLER's father) at Dollersheim is amended by the false testimony of his deceased foster-father's brother (HIKLER) to secure a career advantage for ALOIS. (See Hitler's Jewish Ancestry)
Later, ALOIS changes his surname to HITLER. (See 1837).
October 14: Basil Zaharoff (born: Βασίλειος Zαχαρίας Ζαχάρωφ; aka 'Basileios Zacharias', and Zedzed), begins his international carreer in arms-dealing (with Thorsten Nordenfelt of Sweden), helping to stoke enmity between nations and promote war and corruption internationally.
Sir Zaharoff: arsonist, pimp, arms dealer, honorary knight of the British Empire.
February 8: In Vienna, Austria – Jewish philosopher MARTIN BUBER is born.
Secular Jew, THEODOR HERZL (Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl), the founder of modern Zionism, begins studying law at the university.
Edison makes improvements to the incandescent light bulb designs of others, and files for a patent for his improvements.
(Louis Latimer made improvements to the process of manufacturing the carbon filaments that were used at that time, for which he received a patent in 1891. He was not hired by Thomas Edison until 1894).
Edison's real claim to fame is as the first person to develop an industrial research facility.
(The first light bulb was created by Warren de la Rue, an improvement upon the arc lamp of Humphrey Davy, which was in turn inspired by Alessandro Volta's glowing copper wire experiment. The first practical light bulb was invented and manufactured by Sir Joseph Swan in England. Edison negotiated the rights to manufacture and sell it in North America. But it was basically a joint venture. Both companies shared later improvements with each other.)
Light Bulb
In Canada – Sir John Macdonald's government decides to set up church-run boarding/residential schools in order to remove native children from their homes and families to begin assimilating them into 'white' culture (thereby destroying their cultural identity and seriously damaging their self-esteem).
September: In Hamburg, Germany – Anarchist WILHELM MARR founds the Anti-Semitic League.
November: Prussian historian HEINRICH VON TREITSCHKE describes Jews, in an essay, as an alien and disruptive element in Germany, claiming that many people were complaining – 'the Jews are our misfortune'. (See 1871 In Germany).
Berlin court preacher ADOLF STOEKER persuades his Christian Socialist Workers' Party to adopt an anti-Semitic platform.
In Jerusalem – Ashkenazim are about 6,600, and the Sephardic and Oriental Jews number about 7,200.
Oliphant helps found a settlement of Russian Jews called Zichron Jacob, near Haifa.
Pogroms escalate
In Russia – Jewry comes under continuing attacks and confiscations resulting in a westward move of an average of about 50,000–60,000 Jews per year until 1911. (See 1881).
Germany – German intellectuals' glorification of German culture becomes Germanism.
In the words of MEINECKE (1862-1954) –
"the national idea was raised to the sphere of religion and the eternal."
This climate of mind eventually leads unquestioningly into two destructive World Wars.
In Russia – The assassination of tzar ALEXANDER II is followed by the cruel suppression of the Jewish community.
Jews flee Eastern Europe after the assassination of Czar Alexander II and the rise of pogroms. Most go to America, but 2–3% go to Palestine.
A collective of early European Jewish migrants in Palestine, later known as a kibbutz.
In Germany – The first International Anti-Jewish Congress meets in Dresden.
Jerusalem – Orthodox Arab Christians found the Orthodox Palestine Society to fight against foreign control of their religion. (see 1872).
The first Yemenite Jews arrive but existing Jewish residents of city (Old Yeshuv) don't accept the Yemenite Jews for the Yemenites dress differently, speak a different language, pray differently, and are the poorest.
Russia – Jewish doctor LEON PINSKER promotes a rise of Jewish political nationalism in his pamphlet 'Autoemancipation' which precipitates the founding of the proto-Zionist Hibbat Zion movement. (See 1897, Switzerland).
Political Zionist planning
October: In Palestine – BEN-YEHUDA and YEHIEL MICHAL PINES (two of the earliest Jewish political Zionists in Palestine) write describing the indigenous Palestinians –
"...There are now only five hundred thousand Arabs, who are not very strong, and from whom we shall easily take away the country if only we do it through stratagems without drawing upon us their hostility before we become the strong and populous ones."
Quoted in Benny Morris in Righteous Victims, A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999, p. 49
In Vienna,
Austria – With the help of THEODOR HERZL, a Jewish-National Party is formed and a Jewish Fraternity (“Kadimah”).
November 16-19: In Pittsburgh, USA – A meeting of Jewish Reform Rabbis called by KAUFMANN KOHLER of New York formulate their position as follows –
We recognize in every religion an attempt to grasp the Infinite, and in every mode, source or book of revelation held sacred in any religious system the consciousness of the indwelling of God in man. We hold that Judaism presents the highest conception of the God-idea as taught in our Holy Scriptures and developed and spiritualized by the Jewish teachers, in accordance with the moral and philosophical progress of their respective ages. We maintain that Judaism preserved and defended midst continual struggles and trials and under enforced isolation, this God-idea as the central religious truth for the human race.
We recognize in the Bible the record of the consecration of the Jewish people to its mission as the priest of the one God, and value it as the most potent instrument of religious and moral instruction. We hold that the modern discoveries of scientific researches in the domain of nature and history are not antagonistic to the doctrines of Judaism, the Bible reflecting the primitive ideas of its own age, and at times clothing its conception of divine Providence and Justice dealing with men in miraculous narratives.
We recognize in the Mosaic legislation a system of training the Jewish people for its mission during its national life in Palestine, and today we accept as binding only its moral laws, and maintain only such ceremonies as elevate and sanctify our lives, but reject all such as are not adapted to the views and habits of modern civilization.
We hold that all such Mosaic and rabbinical laws as regulate diet, priestly purity, and dress originated in ages and under the influence of ideas entirely foreign to our present mental and spiritual state. They fail to impress the modern Jew with a spirit of priestly holiness; their observance in our days is apt rather to obstruct than to further modern spiritual elevation.
We recognize, in the modern era of universal culture of heart and intellect, the approaching of the realization of Israel's great Messianic hope for the establishment of the kingdom of truth, justice, and peace among all men. We consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state.
We recognize in Judaism a progressive religion, ever striving to be in accord with the postulates of reason. We are convinced of the utmost necessity of preserving the historical identity with our great past. Christianity and Islam, being daughter religions of Judaism, we appreciate their providential mission, to aid in the spreading of monotheistic and moral truth. We acknowledge that the spirit of broad humanity of our age is our ally in the fulfilment of our mission, and therefore we extend the hand of fellowship to all who cooperate with us in the establishment of the reign of truth and righteousness among men.
We reassert the doctrine of Judaism that the soul is immortal, grounding the belief on the divine nature of human spirit, which forever finds bliss in righteousness and misery in wickedness. We reject as ideas not rooted in Judaism, the beliefs both in bodily resurrection and in Gehenna and Eden (Hell and Paradise) as abodes for everlasting punishment and reward.
In full accordance with the spirit of the Mosaic legislation, which strives to regulate the relations between rich and poor, we deem it our duty to participate in the great task of modern times, to solve, on the basis of justice and righteousness, the problems presented by the contrasts and evils of the present organization of society. (emphasis mine).
See: Central Conference of American Rabbis

Declaration of Principles
Germany elects its first Anti-Semitic deputy to its parliament.
In Palestine – British captain WILSON conducts a more thorough survey of Jerusalem.
Jewish immigration to Palestine from Russia and eastern Europe begins for the creation of a Jewish national home.
France – Catholic and royalist, writer and editor, ÉDOUARD DRUMONT, publishes his vitriolic anti-Semitic La France Juive.
He sees Jews as spies, traitors and ridden with disease. 100,000 copies are sold it the first year. (See 1898).
America – September 4: Bedonkohe Apache leader Geronimo surrenders. Chief of the Bedonkohe band of Chiricahua Apache tribe, he had battled American troops to protect his homeland. But after 30 years of war,
he finally surrendered at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, U.S. bringing an end to the Indian Wars in the Southwest.
In Vienna, Austria – GEORG RITTER RITTER VON SCHöNERER proposes a bill to restrict the immigration of Russian and Romanian Jews to Austria.
In Egypt – An Egyptian woman accidentally discovers the 'Amarna tablets' of diplomatic letters from 14th century BC/BCE Palestine that attest the presence there of the 'Habiru' (possibly the Hebrews).
The French Panama Canal Company collapses and is found to have misappropriated the money of many small investors. Many of the culprits are Jews, which gives impetus to anti-Semitism in France.
April 20: In Braunau-am-Inn, Austria – ADOLF HITLER is born at Salzburger Vorstadt 15. (See 1876). See: his Jewish Ancestry
Cotton merchant
James Maybrick dies at his home in the suburb of Aigburth, Liverpool, after suddenly getting very ill. The circumstances of his death are deemed suspicious by his brothers – and an inquest concludes he was lost likely poisoned by arsenic.
Later, a diary is discovered which suggests Maybrick was Jack The Ripper
In Germany – Four Anti-Semitic deputies are elected to parliament.
Berlin, Germany – A 'Society to Resist anti-Semitism' is formed by non-Jews.
Odessa – Jewish goldsmith ISRAEL ROUCHOMOWSKY begins supplying the art world with fake coins and necklaces made to look old. A gold helmet weighing more than 800 grams (1.75 pounds), which Rouchomowsky embellishes with scenes from the Greek Iliad and an inscription, is according to its fake inscription a gift from the Greek Black Sea colony of Olbia to the Scythian king Saitaphernes.
The Louvre In Paris buys it for a record price of 200,000 francs. (The deception is only discovered in 1903).
art fraud
In Russia – Over 10,000 Jews are expelled from Moscow, and about 110,000 leave Russia to escape persecution.
Palestine – Early Jewish Zionist ASHER GUINSBERG (writing under the pseudonym Ahad Ha'am) "one of the people" visiting Palestine, gives this eye-witness account –
"Abroad, we are used to believing that Eretz-Israel is today semi-desert, desert without cultivation, and that whoever wants to acquire land can come here and get as much as his heart desires. But the truth is nothing like this. In any part of the country, it is difficult to find uncultivated fields. The only uncultivated places are expanses of sand and stony mountains where only fruit trees can grow, and even then, only after a lot of heavy preparatory labor."
Source: Ahad Ha'arn. Complete Works (In Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Devir Publ. House and Jerusalem. The Hebrew Publishing House, 8th edition, p. 23. (Tel Aviv).
Baron Maurice de Hirsch founds the Jewish Colonization Association
"To assist and promote the emigration of Jews from any part of Europe or Asia – and principally from countries in which they may for the time being be subjected to any special taxes or political or other disabilities – to any parts of the world, and to form and establish colonies in various parts of North and South America and other countries, for agricultural, commercial, and other purposes."
June 2, 1895
In Russia – About 137,000 Jews leave to escape persecution.
June 1: In France – Virulently anti-Jewish, ÉDOUARD DRUMONT, uses the dishonourable FERDINAND ESTERHAZY (who later confesses to his fraud against DREYFUS) as his witness in a duel with an offended Jewish French military officer.
March 26: In Germany – The 'Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith' is formed which rejects the idea of a Jewish nation and regards Judaism as exclusively a religious community.
In Germany – The people elect sixteen anti-Semitic deputies to parliament.
December 21: In France – Jewish army captain, ALFRED DREYFUS, is convicted of treason in a 'rigged' trial which leads to a wave of French anti-Semitism. DREYFUS is publicly humiliated in the courtyard of the École Militaire where he is ritually degraded and his epaulettes torn from his uniform before a baying crowd. He is exiled to the notorious Devil's Island. After 12 years the discovery of cover-up and forgeries, as well as demonstrations for and against him in Paris, and EMILE ZOLA's 'J'Accus!', he is 'pardoned' and re-instated.
Against the background of German anti-Semitism, the degradation of DREYFUS is the final spur to THEODORE HERZL for a Zionist political solution, but he encounters, with exceptions, a general opposition from Jewish rabbis, intellectuals, wealthy Jews (and even his wife).
In Germany – Anti-Semitic deputies are almost a majority in parliament.
In some German cities anti-Semitic students prevent Jewish scholars from lecturing.
Of the 600,000 Jews in Germany – about 6,000 are in agriculture; more than 130,000 in craft and industry; and about 40,000 are working for the civil service and in the independent professions.
June 2: Theodor Herzl's 22 pages of notes which he made for his meeting with Baron de Hirsch, whose help he tried to enlist for the realization of his idea, formed the first draft of his Judenstaat.
Ideology of Jewish nationalism
(Zionism) is born
In Paris – THEODOR HERZL (influenced/misled by William Hechler) publishes 'The Jewish State' (Der Judenstaat), with the subtitle "Versuch einer modernen Lösung der Judenfrage", 'Proposal of a modern [political] solution for the Jewish question', calling for a Jewish National Home (in tune with the rising nationalisms of late 19th century Europe), primarily for private circulation –
'I considered the whole matter as only fit to be acted upon, not to be talked about. Public agitation should only be my last resort if my private advice was not heeded or obeyed.' (An Autobiography, January 1898)
Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl
When light becomes darkness!
Anglican Reverend
William Henry Hechler
promoting his mistaken
eschatology linking a
Jewish political state
to the Return of Christ
HERZL is accused by Orthodox Jews of being a new 'Sabbatai Zevi', in that he is trying to take history into his own hands to hasten national redemption politically, acting in a way that the pious reserve for God.
March 10: In Vienna, Austria – THEODORE HERZL records in his diary his meeting with Anglican chaplain/priest William Henry Hechler
"The Rev. William H. Hechler, chaplain to the British Embassy in Vienna, called on me. A likeable, sensitive man with the long grey beard of a prophet. He waxed enthusiastic over my solution. He, too, regard my movement as a “prophetic crisis” – one he foretold two years ago. For he had calculated in accordance with a prophecy dating from Omar’s reign (637-638) that after 42 prophetical months
that is, 1,260 years, Palestine would be restored to the Jews. This would make it 1897-1898."
Christian Misguidance
Holy Scripture
Herzl misled by
false Christian
end-times teaching.
Zionism is born in deception and misleads many!
Anglican priest/chaplain William Henry Hechler misleads Theodore Herzl, in terms of end-time eschatological theories and
time-lines for the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, and ignorantly calls for the Jews to return to Palestine as a pre-condition for the return of Jesus.

'James Bond'
is born
January 23: In Point Douglas, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada – William Samuel Clouston Stanger is born to his widowed mother in poverty, later adopted by the Stephensen family next door, and still later is known to us in history as Sir WILLIAM STEPHENSON upon whose exploits the 'James Bond' stories of espionage are originally based.
(June 21, 1940, UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill sends Stephenson to the United States to covertly establish and run British Security Coordination (BSC) in New York City, over a year before US entry into the war. Stephenson's influence with the US President later helps begin what became the CIA, and after WW2 he uncovers the Soviet Union's stealing of US nuclear secrets, so awakening the West to the Cold War.)

A little man called Intrepid
See: April 1936
August 29-31:
Israel's Conditional
Right to the Land!
In Basel, Switzerland – THEODOR HERZL, with MAX SIMON NORDAU, attended by some 200 participants unites Jewish nationalist political sentiment in the First Zionist Congress, impregnating/contaminating the return-to-Zion religious ideal with political ideas from European nationalism. (See 1882 in Russia).
'Zionism seeks for the Jewish people a publicly recognized legally secured homeland in Palestine.'
העולמית ‎הציונית ההסתדרות
"Were I to sum up the Basel Congress in a word…it would be this: ‘At Basel, I founded the Jewish State.
If I said this out loud today I would be answered by universal laughter. If not in 5 years, then certainly in 50. Everyone will know it’".
Theodor Herzl
Diaries 1987.
The development of the modern (Mishnaic) Hebrew language begins to be stimulated.
In Basel,
Switzerland – Anglican priest WILLIAM HENRY HECHLER continues his influence on Theodore Herzl, in terms of his end-time eschatological theories and timelines for the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (He ignorantly calls for the Jews to return to Palestine as a pre-condition for the return of Jesus), and becomes a prime promoter of Theodore Herzl (in turning religious Zionism into a political movement) by introducing him to strategic socio-political contacts.
of Confusion
In Palestine
A delegation of the First Zionist Congress, sent to assess the viability of settling Palestine with persecuted European Jews, sends back a cabled report –
"The bride is beautiful, but she is married to another man."
Quoted in The Iron Wall by Avi Shlaim, p.3.
Vienna, Austria – The Anti-Semitic KARL LUEGER is elected mayor in spite of opposition from the Emperor, but there is no indication that Jews suffer under his administration.
In British India – The Pashtun tribesmen rise in rebellion against the British due to the division of their tribal territory by the Durand line in 1893, as well as the gradual British occupation of Pashtun lands. They rally under the leadership of the Pashtun fakir Saidullah, nicknamed "Mad Mullah," by the British, who declares a "jihad" against British India and rallies more than 10,000 warriors to his cause. Pashtun warriors under Saidullah attack forts and camps guarding the Malakand Pass and by doing so threatened British control of the entire Northwest Frontier. Young Winston Church as a journalist reports on the Britsh reaction –
"We proceeded systematically, village by village, and we destroyed the houses, filled up the wells, blew down the towers, cut down the great shady trees, burned the crops and broke the reservoirs in punitive devastation."
Under Major-General Sir Bindon Blood

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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