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The Bible in English
It needs
to be remembered when reading Holy Scripture that the two principle background cultures, Old Testament Hebrew and New Testament Hellenistic Greek, behind the major portion of the Bible, have significantly different linguistic trends in descriptive method/style:
The Hebrew trend is toward a synthetic statement (1), and the Hellenistic trend is toward the analytic (2).
The exception to that latter is when a person of Semitic/Hebrew background is writing in Hellenistic Greek.
 
An example
of (1) is Deuteronomy 6:5 –
"You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might" which does not mean that a human is composed of three elements 'heart, 'soul', and 'might'.
They are simply aspects of human experience which overlap in this synthetic description.
 
The history
of the translation of the Bible into English also demonstrates the development of the English language. The following are an example of this. For instance, note the contrast between the West Saxon Version of c.990 AD and the King James Version of 1611 AD in this sentence from Luke 15:16 –
 
 
West Saxon Version –  Da gewilnode he his wambe gelyllan of pam beancoddum be oa swyn aeton: and him man ne sealde.
King James Version – 
And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him.
 
Compare
the Transfiguration narrative translation of Mark 9:3 – 'λευκὰ λίαν ὡς χιὼν'"very white like snow"
4th Century Gothic  hveitus swe snaiws
Anglo-Saxon –
 hwite swa snaw
John Wycliffe –
 white ful moche as snow
William Tyndale –
 very whyte even as snowe 
Geneva Bible –
 very white, as snowe
See
N L T Warning!
And
in the Sermon on the Mount narrative of Matthew 7:1 – 'μη κρινετε ινα μη κριθητε'"Do not judge, that you may not be judged"
4th Century Gothic –  translation fragment lost
Anglo-Saxon –
 Nellen ge deman daet ge ne syn fordemede.
John Wycliffe –
 Nyle ze deme, that se be nat demyd.
William Tyndale –
 Iudge not, lest ye be iudged.
Geneva Bible –
 Judge not, that ye be not iudged.

 
 Tyndale in
particular made an enormous contribution, but ignoring the old spelling, some of Tyndale's vigour was however later lost, as committee work often does, and as this comparison shows.
Comparing Luke 3:17.      
1534 AD/CE 
William Tyndale –
 Thou arte my dear Son in whom I deliyghte.
1611 AD/CE 
AV/King James Version –
 This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased.
And also in Luke 4:5.  
William Tyndale –
 ...ye twincklinge of an eye
AV/King James Version –
 ...a moment in time


 The Cost:
To this appreciation of the path which our Bible traversed to come into our hands today, there must also be added its terrible cost to those who laid down their lives (such as Tyndale), often in a most horrible manner. For this, we owe more than gratitude...
 
  The Cause:
As a consequence of the centralization of the structures of Christendom in Western Europe, the language of the organized Church in Western Europe became Latin. The principal Bible in use was therefore the Latin Vulgate translation of Jerome. But...
 
 
As Latin became increasingly a language of the past or of the educated class alone, the people in general had no access to the Bible except through the clergy, many of whom eventually no longer understood Latin themselves.
 
 
The Bible became effectively locked away from those who needed it the most. Piety became measured by the purchasing power of those who could afford the mechanisms of the Church to escape Purgatory.
 
 
 
blue pin c.670
Shy illiterate middle-aged cowherd Caedmon, of Whitby Abbey in Northumbria, suddenly receives the gift of poetic-song through a dream (according to Bede) and begins to paraphrase the Bible's contents in song into Anglo-Saxon for the local people. (The 229-page Caedmon manuscript is kept today in the Bodleian Library at Oxford).
  735
May: Venerable Bede (Baeda), on his deathbed, completes translating part of the Gospel of John into Anglo-Saxon from the Vetus Italica (a Latin pre-Vulgate version).
 
9th Cen.
Passages from Exodus and the first fifty Psalms are translated into Anglo-Saxon, possibly by pious King Alfred.
 
10th Cen. A portion of Genesis is translated into Anglo-Saxon by Abbot Aelfric.  
  c.1380
Nicholas Hereford (under Wycliffe's influence) translates the Old Testament (from the Latin Vulgate) from Genesis to Baruch, before fleeing burning after his condemnation by the Church Council at Blackfriars.
 
  John
Purvey continues his work –
If I speke with tungis of men and aungels, sothli I haue not charite ... 
– giving the English their first direct contact with God's Word.
 
Knighton,
ecclesiastical chronicler of the time, decries this development as making the Bible –
'more open to the laity, and even women... the gospel pearl is thrown before swine...
this precious gem of the clergy has been turned into the sport of the laity...'
idiot!
(The British Library, London, possesses the oldest verifiable copy of the complete Bible in English, a Wycliffite Bible, written in Middle English from the Latin Vulgate, probably in London, before 1397, and known as 'The Bible of Thomas of Woodstock' – the youngest son of King Edward III).
 
  1408
Archbishop Arundel of Canterbury creates the Constitutions of Oxford to prevent and condemn any translations of the Bible into English, or any other language, and to prevent reading of the same, upon pain of greater excommunication (burning) of the guilty –
'to be accursed eating and drinking, walking and sitting, rowing and riding, laughing and weeping, in house and in field, on water and on land ...Cursed be their head and their thoughts, their eyes and their ears, their tongues and their lips, their teeth and their throats...'
Relapsed persons are to be publicly burnt alive.
Archbishop Arundel writes to the Pope describing Wycliffe's worst sin as being to devise – 'the expedient of a new translation of Scripture into the mother tongue'
– and that the godly Wycliffe is therefore the 'son of the Serpent, herald and child of Antichrist'.
 
  1516
Erasmus (lectured at Cambridge, a town of 'Lollard' influence, 1510-14) edits and publishes a New Testament in its original language (Hellenistic Greek) based in particular on two 12th century manuscripts. Lacking a complete Greek copy of the book of Revelation, Erasmus translates the last six verses back into Greek from the Latin Vulgate. He also introduces into the Greek text material found in the Latin Vulgate but not in the Greek manuscripts. (He later adds words Latin Vulgate's words of 1 John 5:7-8 (trinitarian witness) because they were later found in a Greek manuscript, not knowing that they were a back-translation addition by an Oxford monk from the Latin Vulgate.
'Textus Receptus' faulty
See 1869.
Note: 1526
William Tyndale publishes his English translation of the New Testament from its Hellenistic Greek original language.
October 28: Many copies of the New Testament in English by Tyndale are publicly burnt at St Paul's Cross, after the Bishop of London, Tunstall, declares Tyndale's Testament as doctrinam peregrinam (strange doctrine).
November: Pirated (Nachdruk) copies of Tyndale's New Testament (very poorly proof-read) begin arriving in England from Antwerp from the press of Christoffel van Ruremund. Some claimed to have been printed in Utopia (The ideal fictitious world of Thomas More, the arch enemy of Tyndale), others in St Peter's at Rome (cum privilegio apostolico), and still others in Basle by Adam Anonymous.
 
  1527
January: English ambassador in the Low Countries, John Hackett, on instruction of Cardinal Wolsey, conducts book-burnings of English Bibles in Antwerp and Bergen-op-Zoom.
May 26: Archbishop Warham writes to his fellow bishops asking that they share the expense with him of buying up all English Bibles in order to burn them.
 
  1528
Thomas More describes Tyndale's English translation of the Greek New Testament as: 'too bad to be amended'.
See: 1611
  1530
January: Tyndale's English translation of the Hebrew Pentateuch is published by van Hoochstraten, and George Joye's English translation of the Hebrew Psalms is published, in Antwerp.
May 24: Archbishop Warham at a meeting of 'divines' issues a denunciation of Tyndale's 'corrupted' translation of the Old Testament 'as in the New', and also a Public Instrument for the 'abolishing of the Scripture and other Books to be read in English'.
The Bishop of London demonstrates this ban by a great public burning of English New Testaments and other books in St Paul's churchyard.

June: Under the influence of Lord Chancellor Thomas More, King Henry VIII commands that all English Scriptures are forbidden and are to be surrendered to the bishop's officers within fifteen days.
See: 1611

Note his character!arrow
1531
Christoffel van Ruremund prints a third pirated edition of Tyndale's English New Testament and smuggles these into England. (See November 1526).
May: William Tyndale sends a message to King Henry VIII from Antwerp, pleading for the king to permit the Bible in the language of the people if he sacrifices himself to the king –
'If it would stand with the king's most gracious pleasure to grant only a bare text of the scripture to be put forth among the people like as is put forth among the subjects of the emperor in these parts [The Low Countries],  and of other Christian princes, be it of the translation of what person soever shall please his majesty, I shall immediately make faithful promise never to write more, nor abide two days in these parts after the same: but immediately to repair unto his realm, and there most humbly submit myself at the feet of his royal majesty, offering my body to suffer what pain or torture, yea, what death his grace will, so this be obtained. And till that time, I will abide the asperity of all chances, whatsoever shall come, and endure my life in as many pains as it is able to bear and suffer.'
Tyndale refutes Thomas More's damning of his English New Testament, for translating the Greek ecclesia as 'congregation' (rather than as 'church'), by citing More's own complete acceptance of his friend Erasmus' translating the same Greek word into the Latin as congregatio.
George Joye translates Isaiah into English for publishing at Antwerp.
 
  1534
A fourth pirate edition of Tyndale's English New Testament is published by van Ruremund's widow with some unfortunate 'corrections' by George Joye, such as –
Tyndale 1526
 
Joye's 'Correction'
'else he will lene the one and despise the other'
 
'else he will love the one ...'
It should have read – 'else he will lean to the one...' (Matt.6), and did so in Tyndale's revised edition in November. Joye also changed the pirate copies of Tyndale's 1526 edition by putting 'life after this' in the place of 'resurrection' (Matt.22) when reference to the body was not too obvious, in order to accord with his own theology.
May: George Joye translates Jeremiah into English for publishing by van Ruremund's widow (under the 'van Endhoven' alias).
November: Tyndale's revised New Testament in English is published by Martin Emperor (Lempereur), with more than five thousand changes to the 1526 edition. Tyndale's description of its content reads –
'Here thou hast (mooste deare reader) the newe Testament or covenant made wyth us of God in Christes bloude.'
At the back Tyndale includes 40 passages from the Old Testament read in services according to the Sarum Use (a local medieval variation of the Roman rite that had become the standard in England).
 
Thomas
More, under imprisonment in the Tower of London, recruits traitorous Henry Phillips to betray William Tyndale in Antwerp to the imperial authorities for execution.
 
   
December 10: The Convocation of bishops petitions the king –
'that the sacred Scriptures should be translated into the English tongue by certain honest and learned men for that purpose by his Majesty, and should be delivered to the people according to their learning'
No royal command is forthcoming, but Miles Coverdale begins to incorporate Tyndale's existing translations into his Bible. Missing books are translated by himself from the German versions of Luther and Zwingli, with guidance from the Vulgate and the Latin translation of Pagnini.
 
arrow 1535
May 21: In Antwerp, Henry (Harry) Phillips of Dorset (paid by Thomas More; beheaded July 6, 1535), having infiltrated himself into godly translator Tyndale's trust, arranges his arrest for heresy by imperial officers.
May 23: William Tyndale is arrested by emperial officers after being identified by Phillips.
Tyndale is imprisoned in Vilvoorde castle's dank dungeon.
Months later Tyndale patiently writes (apparently to the marquis of Bergen) –
'...by the Lord Jesus, that if I am to remain here through the winter, you will request the commissary to have the kindness to send me, from the goods of mine which he has, a warmer cap; for I suffer greatly from cold in the head, and am afflicted by a perpetual catarrh, which is much increased in this cell; a warmer coat also, for this which I have is very thin; a piece of cloth too to patch my leggings. My overcoat is worn out; my shirts are also worn out. He has a woollen shirt, if he will be good enough to send it. I have also with him leggings of thicker cloth to put on above; he also has warmer nightcaps. And I ask to be allowed to have a lamp in the evening; it is indeed wearisome sitting alone in the dark.
But most of all I beg and beseech your clemency to be urgent with the commissary, that he will kindly permit me to have the Hebrew bible, Hebrew grammar, and Hebrew dictionary, that I may pass the time in that study. In return may you obtain what you most desire, so only that it be for the salvation of your soul.
But if any other decision has been taken concerning me, to be carried out before winter, I will be patient, abiding the will of God, to the glory of the grace of my Lord Jesus Christ; whose Spirit (I pray) may ever direct your heart.
Amen. W Tindalus.'
Miles Coverdale publishes the first complete English Bible which he dedicates to King Henry VIII. It was probably printed at Zurich, Switzerland.
See:
Church–State
Relationship
  1536
Thomas Cromwell issues an injunction that every church must be provided with a Bible.
August: Three canons from Louvain University (Tapper, Latomus, Doye) sit on the Commission which eventually condemns Tyndale's views and finds him guilty of heresy.
August 5: William Tyndale is publicly defrocked from the priesthood ('unhallowing of Guillem Tindal') and submitted to the secular power for public burning at the stake.
October 6: Tyndale, first translator of the New Testament into English, is burnt alive at the stake in the town square between church and castle of Vilvoorde, in the presence of the Commission. His ashes are poured into the river Zenne.
Another victim
of the 'Prostitute City'
of Revelation 17:6.
  1537
'Matthew's Bible' is printed in Antwerp by John Roger (a friend of Tyndale), under the alias of Thomas Matthew, and dedicated to King Henry VIII who licensed 1500 copies. He uses Tyndale's translation (New Testament, Pentateuch, and Joshua to 2 Chronicles) supplemented with Coverdale's contribution. The initials 'W.T.' between the two testaments recognise the predominance of William Tyndale's contribution.
 
  1538
Thomas Cromwell issues an injunction that every church must be provided with a Bible.
 
  1539
The 'Great Bible' is printed in Paris under Thomas Cromwell's patronage, and placed in all the churches of England.
 
  1541
May: King Henry VIII orders that a copy of the Bible in English (Myles Coverdale's revision of Tyndale's translation, the first complete printed translation of the Bible into English) be placed in every parish church with instructions that the Scriptures were to be read "humbly and meekly, reverently and obediently" under the watchful eye of the church, and restricted the private use of the Bible.
 
  1543
English Bibles are now legalized and officially distributed.
But, a statute is enacted to prohibit the reading of the English Bible to –
'women, artisans, apprentices, and companions working for those of an equal or inferior rank to yeomen, farmers and manual labourers'.
 
  1548
Richard Iugge ('dwellynge in Paules churchyarde') publishes the Tyndale New Testament (the first English printer to do so – 'after the last copye corrected by his lyfe'), where so many of Tyndale's Testaments had been burnt.
See: 1530
  1560
The 'Geneva Bible' (also known as the 'Breeches Bible' for translating a Genesis 3 phrase 'they made themselves breeches' instead of 'aprons') is published with prefaces, maps, tables, concordances, illustrations, and marginal notes and glosses.
 
  1582
The 'Douai-Reims Bible' (a Catholic translation) is published.
 
  1599
The English 'Geneva Bible' (GB) is printed in that city.
 
  1610
A second edition of the 'Douai-Reims Bible' is published.
 
1611
The King James or Authorized Version is published.
Of King James' 54 translators (in six teams – two at Westminster, two at Oxford, two at Cambridge), only one is not an Anglican clergyman. Their translation is heavily dependant on Tyndale's work and makes very few significant changes to Tyndale's English translation which are in any way helpful (without giving him any credit however) –
 
 
 
Tyndale Version
King James Version
ekklesia (ἐκκλησία):
 'I will build my congregation
 becomes 
'I will build my church' [biased toward the organization]
agapē (αγάπη): 'love' 
 becomes 
'charity' [biased toward good works]
 
However,
the betrayed and martyred Tyndale's translation contributes to the King James or Authorized Version (according to a 1998 analysis, Moynahan 2003, p.1) – 75.8%  of its Old Testament;  and 84.0%  of its New Testament.
See: 1528
The King James
Version also adds a propaganda preface of fawning honour to James –
'King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland'
('to your Majesty, not only as to our King and Sovereign, but as to the principal Mover and Author of the work'),
This is the King James who lived as a wastrel, got entangled in unnecessary wars, and considered Parliament a nuisance, occasionally ordered his political rivals to be hanged. He also had at least half a dozen male lovers, but also a wife and six children.
(A great advertisment for Christianity, not!)
The Christian Church ought to be ashamed of any association whatsoever with this King James.
 
and condemnation of any possible criticism from –
'Popish Persons at home or abroad, who therefore will malign us' [against Roman Catholics],
and also from–
'Brethren, who run their own ways, and give liking unto nothing, but what is framed by themselves, and hammered on their anvil'
[a common slander of the persecuted Wycliffes and Tyndales of England].
 
  1642
During the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, appointed by parliament to create Britain's first national army, inists that his troops are provided with a pocket sized Bible, comprising a selection of short passages mainly from the Old Testament and printed in pamphlet form.
Later, five editions of a reprint of 50,000 copies were circulated among Federal troops in the American Civil War.
 
  1701
A new edition of the King James Version is published with mainly spelling adjustments.
 
  1734
German Lutheran scholar Johann Albrecht Bengel publishes his text of the New Testament and Apparatus Criticus, which marks the beginning of modern textual criticism of the New Testament.
 
  1769
A new edition of the King James Version is published reconciling the 1701 and 1611 versions.
 
1869-72
Constantius Tischendorf publishes a two volume Greek New Testament with all variant readings known at this time.
 
1881-85
The Revised Version (RV) is published.
 
  1889
J.N. Darby's translation (Darby) is published.
  1898
Young's Literal Translation (YLT) is published.
  1899
The Douay-Rheims Bible (DRB) is published.
  1900
An illustrated New Testament, published in London by W. Walters, is issued to British forces fighting the Akfikaners in the South African Boer War.
 
  1901
The American Standard Version (ASV) is published, on textual basis –
NT: Westcott and Hort 1881 and Tregelles 1857, (Reproduced in a single, continuous, form in Palmer 1881).
OT: Masoretic Text, with some Septuagint influence.
 
  1914
The YWCA publishes a New Testament which is circulated among Britis troops in the First World War.
 
  1939
A pocket New Testament (so-called "Olive Wood" from its wooden cover) is issued to South African forces during the Second World War.
 
  1952
The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is published.
 
  1962
The Modern King James Version (MKJV) is published.
 
  1964
The Amplified Bible (AMP), by Frances E. Siewert and 12 others, is published.
 
  1965
The Bible in Basic English (BBE) is published.
 
  1966
The Today's English Version (Good News version) is published by the American Bible Society.
The Jerusalem Bible (JB), by 36 translators, is published.
 
  1970
The New English Bible version (NEB) with Apochrypha is published.
The New American Bible (NAB), with Deuterocanonical/Apocryphal books, by 55 translators, is published under direction of Pope Pius XII.
 
  1971
The Revised Standard Version improved is published.
The New American Standard (NAS) version, by 54 translators, is published, on textual basis –
   • NT: High Correspondence to the 23rd edition of the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece.
   • OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with Septuagint influence.
 
A reactionary edition: 1976
The Black Heritage Edition of the King James Version is published in the USA (Nashville) with a preface highlighting the contribution of 'black' persons in Scripture and, among other, brief sketches of 'Contemporary Black Achievement'.
 
  1978
The New International Version (NIV), by 115 translators, is published.
 
  1982
The New King James Version (NKJV), by 119 translators, is published.
 
  1990
The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), by 30 translators, is published.
 
  1993
'The Message' version (thought for thought translation), by Eugene H. Peterson, is published.
Please Note!
Beware of the paraphrase of Joshua 1:4 which misrepresents the Euphates as the eastern boundary of the Promised Land.
It is it's nothern boundary!
  1995
The New American Standard Version (NASB) Updated is published.
The Contemporary English Version (CEV) is published.
  1996
The New Living Translation (NLT), by 90 translators, is published. Orginally intended to be a correction of the Living Bible paraphrase the phrase 'dynamic translation' to improve its acceptance among scholars.
  1998
'The Scriptures' version is translated by the so-called 'Institute for Scripture Research', transliterating the Jewish names of Old Testament books and Hebraizing the names of New Testament books and names; so that:
Judaizing Perversion!
The New Testament translation titled "Messianic Renewed Covenant" follows this same corruption of the newness of the New Covenant even in its name.
'Jesus Christ' becomes
 Messiah Jehoshua (the latter in Hebrew script as if it were a sacred form);
'God' becomes  Elohim; This version marks a significant step in Satan's Judaizing-heresy
(degrading the New Covenant to a 'renewed' covenant of Israel)
that will probably eventually reach its climax of apostasy
in the rebuilding of the old Jerusalem temple which God's
judgment destroyed in 70 AD in fulfilment of Christ's prophecy.
'Holy Spirit' becomes  Set-apart Spirit;
'James' becomes  Ya'aqob;
'John' becomes  Yohanan;
'Jerusalem'  Yerushalayim;
'Levites'  Lewites;
'Elijah'  Elijahu; etc.
Remember that the Hebrew language is derived from the ancient Canaanite of Canaan and has no spiritual character of its own.

See: 'Israel Heresy'

See:
The Ten Commandments
In this
translation the accuracy of the original language text of the New Testament is despised (for being Greek/Gentile) by, for instance, ignoring the significant name change of dual-citizen Apostle Paul from his Jewish to his Roman name after his crucial confrontation in Paphos (Ac.13) by giving him the Judaized name "Sha'ul" throughout and so hiding his personal reorientation shown in Holy Scripture.
 
It is
here perhaps worth noting that the proudly reverenced Hebrew square-script is a Gentile influence from the Aramaic language of Israel's Babylonian captivity, as is also the present-day Jewish New Year.
See: YHWH
  2000
The New Testament of the Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB) is published.
 
  2001
The English Standard Version (ESV), an adaptation of the Revised Standard Version, by 100+ translators, is published (Crossway Bibles of Good News Publishers).
The New Testament of Today's New International Version (TNIV), based on the New International Version, by 115 translators, is published.
 
  2003
Charles VanderPool publishes his English translation based on the Old Testament Septuagint Greek translation of the Hebrew, and the Greek New Testament.
Apostolic Bible Polyglot
NLT Warning:  
Please be aware that the New Living Translation (NLT) of the Old Testament is seriously misleading in certain places.
   A trustworthy paraphrase requires of the translators –
• 
a thorough knowledge of the orginal language;
• 
its cultural idiom at that time;
• 
the historical context within which the text speaks; and,
• 
the parameters of the same subject pronounced on elsewhere in the holy text.
Recommended translation:
English Standard Version
ESV
An illustration
of the significance of cultural idiom in translation is the translation of this Afrikaans language idiom into English:
Ons het 'n sak sout saam opge-eet
'We've eaten a sack of salt together' – which is actually saying – "We have known one another a long time'.
So, not knowing the idioms of a culture results in totally misleading translation, and with the Bible this has serious consequences!
 
The evident
lack of this in the New Living Translation of the Old Testament is demonstrated in at least two places –
 
  1.  Joshua 1:4 
The orginal text makes no mention of "east", as the Euphrates is presented by God elsewhere as being the northern boundary of the Promised Land (not its 'eastern' boundary as this translation misleads, which would be in violation of Deuteronomy 2:5,9,19, etc, and God does NOT contradict Himself).
  2.  Psalm 8:5 
Humanity was made a little lower than angelic beings, not a little lower than "God" as this perverse translation says, for the term is correctly referred when this text is directly quoted in the New Testament in Hebrews 2:7 as "angels" which is the idiomatic use of אלהים used here.
NLT corruptions
of the Holy Text
 
Original Language Texts  
 
Old Testament
 
Modern translations depend mainly upon the Hebrew Masoretic text such as found in Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. The level of copying accuracy over the centuries behind this text is unparalleled by any other manuscript history.
 
However, the Masoretic text is far from infallible. First century Jewish priest-historian, Josephus, makes us aware that even the master scrolls of the Torah kept in the Jerusalem Temple, at that time (many centuries before the Masoretic scholars), were of three versions in irresolvable spelling differences (ma'on, the za'atutei, and hi' scrolls).
 
 
Though extremely few, some textual errors in the Hebrew deserve mention as they have intruded upon our understanding of the sacred text –
 Scribal Error
 
Best  Correction
word omitted
Genesis 11:12
'...Cainan...'
'205'
Genesis 11:32
'until tribute comes to him'
Genesis 49:10
'until He comes to whom it belongs'
'We shall not die'
Habakkuk 1:12
'You shall not die'

See:
Falsified Bible Texts
This
'scar-tissue' damage to the best existing Hebrew text is evident today when one compares the (pre-Christian) Jewish Septuagint translation, the Dead Sea Scrolls copies of portions of the Old Testament, the Syriac Peshitta, Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Jewish Targums (translations).
 
New Testament
Concerning
manuscript dating, it had been thought that the codex format (like our books in contrast to the scroll format) only came into use in the second century AD, and therefore some early New Testament papyrus fragments of this format were dated accordingly, even though textual form placed them in the first century. However, the Roman satirist-poet Martial, in his Epigram I, 2 (84 to 86 AD), refers to copies of his own manuscripts in codex format terms. This then requires a reworking of scholars' understanding of first century copying and distribution of New Testament writings during the lifetime of their authors, which is still lacking among some.
See also:
Modern translations are based mainly upon the Novum Testamentum Graece (27th ed.) edited by Eberhard Nestle, and the Greek New Testament published by the United Bible Society.
Regarding controversy over the Greek text of our modern New Testament – See: Wescott & Hort

Research Resource
for Students
Anglican Behaviour The Beautiful Book Understanding Bible
Former
Director of the British Museum, Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, concludes in The Bible and Archaeology:
 
 
“The interval, then, between the dates of original composition and the earliest extant evidence becomes so small as to be in fact negligible, and the last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed. Both the authenticity and the general integrity of the books of the New testament may be regarded as finally established.
 
An English
sampling of that great gospel text from John 3:16 in English compared as the language has changed.
1385 
John Wycliffe – 
For God louede so the world, that he yaf his oon bigetun sone...
1534  William Tyndale –  For God so loveth the worlde yt he hath geven his only sonne...
1568  Bishops Bible –  For God so loued the worlde, that he gaue his only begotten sonne...
1599  Geneva Bible –  For God so loued the worlde, that hee hath giuen his onely begotten Sonne...
1611  King James Version –  For God so loued ye world, that he gaue his only begotten Sonne...
1701  King James Version –  For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son...
1889  J.N. Darby Bible –  For God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son...
1898  Young's Literal Translation –  for God did so love the world, that His Son--the only begotten--He gave...
1899  Douay-Rheims Bible –  For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son...
1901  American Standard Version –  For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son...
1912  Weymouth New Testament –  For so greatly did God love the world that He gave His only Son...
1965  Bible Basic English –  For God had such love for the world that he gave his only Son...
1976  Good News Translation –  For God loved the world so much that he gave his only Son...
1985  New Jerusalem Bible –  For this is how God loved the world: he gave his only Son...
1991   Contemporary English Version –  God loved the people of this world so much that he gave his only Son...
1996  New Living Tranlation – For God loved the world so much that he gave his one and only Son...
1998  International Standard Version –  For this is how God loved the world: He gave his unique Son...
2001   English Standard Version –  For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son...
2002  Analytical-Literal Translation –  For God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten [or, unique] Son...
And a sampling of the same text in the languages of some others whom God loves . . .
 
1 Icelandic – 
Því svo elskaði Guð heiminn, að hann gaf son sinn eingetinn, til þess að hver sem á hann trúir glatist ekki, heldur hafi eilíft líf.
2 Welsh –  Do, carodd Duw y byd gymaint nes iddo roi ei unig Fab, er mwyn i bob un sy'n credu ynddo ef beidio â mynd i ddistryw ond cael bywyd tragwyddol.
3 French – 
Car Dieu a tant aimé le monde qu'il a donné son Fils unique, afin que quiconque croit en lui ne périsse point, mais qu'il ait la vie éternelle.
4 Italian – 
Perché Dio ha tanto amato il mondo, che ha dato il suo unigenito Figlio, affinché chiunque crede in lui non perisca, ma abbia vita eterna.
5 Portugese – 
Porque Deus amou o mundo de tal maneira que deu o seu Filho unigênito, para que todo aquele que nele crê não pereça, mas tenha a vida eterna.
6 Norwegian – 
For så har Gud elsket verden at han gav sin Sønn, den enbårne, forat hver den som tror på ham, ikke skal fortapes, men ha evig liv;
7 Swedish – 
Ty så älskade Gud världen att han utgav sin enfödde Son, för att den som tror på honom inte skall gå förlorad utan ha evigt liv.
8 Finnish – 
Sillä niin on Jumala maailmaa rakastanut, että hän antoi ainokaisen Poikansa, ettei yksikään, joka häneen uskoo, hukkuisi, vaan hänellä olisi iankaikkinen elämä.
9 Russian –  Ибо так возлюбил Бог мир, что отдал Сына Своего Единородного, дабы всякий верующий в Него, не погиб, но имел жизнь вечную.
10 Polish – 
Tak bowiem Bóg umiłował świat, że dał swego jednorodzonego Syna, aby każdy, kto w niego wierzy, nie zginął, ale miał życie wieczne.
11 Dutch – 
Want alzo lief heeft God de wereld gehad, dat Hij Zijn eniggeboren Zoon gegeven heeft, opdat een iegelijk die in Hem gelooft, niet verderve, maar het eeuwige leven hebbe.
12 German – 
Denn Gott hat die Welt so geliebt, daß er seinen eingeborenen Sohn gab, damit jeder, der an ihn glaubt, nicht verloren gehe, sondern ewiges Leben habe.
13 Hungarian – 
Mert úgy szerette Isten e világot, hogy az õ egyszülött Fiát adta, hogy valaki hiszen õ benne, el ne vesszen, hanem örök élete legyen.
14 Bulgarian – 
Защото Бог толкова възлюби света, че даде Своя Единороден Син, за да не погине ни един, който вярва в Него, но да има вечен живот:
15 Ukrainian – 
Так бо Бог полюбив світ, що дав Сина Свого Однородженого, щоб кожен, хто вірує в Нього, не згинув, але мав життя вічне.
16 Romanian – 
Cãci Dumnezeu așa a iubit lumea, încât pe Fiul Sãu Cel Unul-Nãscut L-a dat ca oricine crede în El sã nu piarã, ci sã aibã viațã veșnicã.
17 Albanian –  Sepse Perëndia e deshi aq botën, sa dha Birin e tij të vetëmlindurin, që, kushdo që beson në të, të mos humbasë, por të ketë jetë të përjetshme.
18 Greek – 
οὕτω γὰρ ἡγάπησεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν κόσμον, ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται, ἀλλ᾿ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον.
19 Turkish – 
Çünkü Tanrı dünyayı o kadar çok sevdi ki, biricik Oğlu'nu verdi. Öyle ki, O'na iman edenlerin hiçbiri mahvolmasın, hepsi sonsuz yaşama kavuşsun.
20 Arabic – 
لأَنَّهُ هَكَذَا أَحَبَّ اللَّهُ الْعَالَمَ حَتَّى بَذَلَ ابْنَهُ الْوَحِيدَ لِكَيْ لاَ يَهْلِكَ كُلُّ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ بَلْ تَكُونُ لَهُ الْحَيَاةُ الأَبَدِيَّةُ.
21 Somali – 
Ilaah intuu dunida jacayl u qabay ayuu siiyey Wiilkiisa keliya oo dhashay in mid kastoo isaga rumaystaa uusan lumin laakiinse uu lahaado nolosha weligeed ah.
22 Korean – 
하나님이 세상을 이처럼 사랑하사 독생자를 주셨으니 이는 저를 믿는 자마다 멸망치 않고 영생을 얻게 하려 하심이니라
23 Chinese – 
「上帝深愛世人,甚至將他的獨生子賜給他們,叫一切信他的,不至滅亡,反得永生。
24 Japanese – 
神はそのひとり子を賜わったほどに、この世を愛して下さった。それは御子を信じる者がひとりも滅びないで、永遠の命を得るためである。
25  Vietnamese –  Vì Đức Chúa Trời yêu thương thế gian, đến nỗi đã ban Con một của Ngài, hầu cho hễ ai tin Con ấy không bị hư mất mà được sự sống đời đời.
26 Indonesian – 
Karena begitu besar kasih Allah akan dunia ini, sehingga Ia telah mengaruniakan Anak-Nya yang tunggal, supaya setiap orang yang percaya kepada-Nya tidak binasa, melainkan beroleh hidup yang kekal.
27 Hindi – 
परमेश्वर को जगत से इतना प्रेम था कि उसने अपने एकमात्र पुत्र को दे दिया, ताकि हर वह आदमी जो उसमें विश्वास रखता है, नष्ट न हो जाये बल्कि उसे अनन्त जीवन मिल जाये।
28 Afrikaans –  Want so lief het God die wêreld gehad, dat Hy sy eniggebore Seun gegee het, sodat elkeen wat in Hom glo, nie verlore mag gaan nie, maar die ewige lewe kan hê.

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