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The Papal Continuity Assumed By Roman Catholicism

The papal office currently carries the titles –
'Bishop of Rome', 'Vicar of Jesus Christ', 'Successor of St. Peter', 'Prince of the Apostles', 'Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church', 'Primate of Italy', 'Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province' and 'Servant of the Servants of God'.
Since 1929,
the pope's temporal title has been 'Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City' (the Holy See).
Papacy emblem
Developing from the office of bishop, or overseer, of the Christian church in Rome, there came over the centuries that followed a status (from its Roman imperial honour) that ascribed supernatural authority to this office which reached back to Simon Peter in order to try to validate itself.
accordingly believe that –
"The Roman Pontiff, as the successor of Peter,
is the perpetual and visible principle and foundation of unity of both the bishops and of the faithful."

for an Anglican/Episcopalian basis of
this so-called 'Apostolic Succession'.
  : Pope : : Reign :  
1 "Peter" 30–67
2 Linus 67–76
3 Anacletus (Cletus) 76–88
4 Clement I 88–97
5 Evaristus 97–105
6 Alexander I 105–115
7 Sixtus I
(Xystus I)
    8 Telesphorus 125–136  
    9 Hyginus 136–140  
    10 Pius I 140–155  
    11 Anicetus 155–166  
    12 Soter 166–175  
:Anti-Popes: :Personal Names: 13 Eleutherius 175–189 :Detail:
    14 Victor I 189–199 He seeks closer unity among the loose federation of provincial synods by emphasizing the leadership of Rome as capital of the Empire.
    15 Zephyrinus 199–217  
    16 Callistus I 217–222  
Hippolytus (222–235)   17 Urban I 222–230  
    18 Pontain 230–235  
    19 Anterus 235–236  
    20 Fabian 236–250 As layman he is ordained as bishop of Rome
Novatian (251–258)   21 Cornelius 251–253  
    22 Lucius I 253–254  
    23 Stephen I 254–257  
    24 Sixtus II 257–258  
    25 Dionysius 260–268  
    26 Felix I 269–274  
    27 Eutychian 275–283  
    28 Caius (Gaius) 283–296  
    29 Marcellinus 296–304  
  No Pope  interregnum 1 304 – 308 Rome is without an Archbishop (chief bishop).
    30 Marcellus I 308–309  
    31 Eusebius 309 or 310  
    32 Miltiades 311–314  
    33 Sylvester I 314–335  
    34 Marcus 336        
    35 Julius I 337–352  
Felix II (353–365)   36 Liberius 352–366  
Ursinus (366–367)   37 Damasus I 366–383 After the election battle for the bishopric of Rome between Damasus and Ursinus, 137 bodies are found in a church – on the site of what later becomes St Maria Maggiore (Rome).
He holds a synod which demands state intervention to ensure that western bishops are subject to the bishop of Rome, and that the bishop of Rome could not be compelled to appear in court.
He institutes a great annual ceremony in honour of Peter and Paul as giving primacy to Rome over eastern Christianity, and as continuing protectors of the imperial city. He Latinises the Mass, which had up to now be conducted in Hellenistic Greek (the language of the New Testament), and changes its simple ceremony into a lengthier and more formal one with an element of grandeur to counterbalance impressive pagan ritual. (From this the West acquired the 'kyrie', the 'sanctus', the 'gloria', and creed rituals of episcopal Christianity).
    38 Siricius 384–399 The term 'pope' begins to be used as a title of this office. He is the first pope to make celibacy compulsory for clerics.
    39 Anastasius I 399–401  
    40 Innocent I 401–417 He teaches that 'confirmation' is a sacrament reserved for bishops.
    41 Zosimus 417–418  
Eulalius (418–419)   42 Boniface I 418–422  
    43 Celestine I 422–432  
    44 Sixtus III 432–440  
    45 Leo I 440–461  
    46 Hilarius 461–468  
    47 Simplicius 468–483  
    48 Felix III (II) 483–492 He causes the first schism between Eastern and Western churches in 484 when he excommunicates Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople on the basis of the Henoticon.
    49 Gelasius I 492–496 He asserts the supremacy of Rome against Constantinople and that the world is ruled independently by two powers; the sacred authority of the priesthood and the authority of kings.
    50 Anastasius II 496–498  
Laurentius (498–505)   51 Symmachus 498–514  
    52 Hormisdas 514–523 was married and widowed before ordination. He was the father of Pope Silverius
    53 John I 523–526  
    54 Felix IV (III) 526–530  
Dioscurus (530)   55 Boniface II 530–532  
    56 John II 533–535  
    57 Agapetus I
(Agapitus I)
    58 Silverius 536–537  
    59 Vigilius 537–555  
    60 Pelagius I 556–561  
    61 John III 561–574  
    62 Benedict I 575–579  
    63 Pelagius II 579–590  
    64 Gregory I 590–604 He asserts the universal jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome.
He encourages monasticism, the veneration of relics, and
decrees that the proper response to a sneeze is 'God Bless You'.
    65 Sabinian 604–606  
    66 Boniface III 607        
    67 Boniface IV 608–615  
    68 Deusdedit
(Adeodatus I)
    69 Boniface V 619–625  
    70 Honorius I 625–638  
    71 Severinus 640        
    72 John IV 640–642  
    73 Theodore I 642–649  
    74 Martin I 649–655  
    75 Eugene I 655–657  
    76 Vitalian 657–672  
    77 Adeodatus (II) 672–676  
    78 Donus 676–678  
    79 Agatho 678–681  
    80 Leo II 682–683  
    81 Benedict II 684–685  
    82 John V 685–686  
    83 Conon 686–687  
    84 Sergius I 687–701  
Theodore II (687)   85 John VI 701–705  
Paschal I (687–692)   86 John VII 705–707  
    87 Sisinnius 708        
    88 Constantine 708–715 He accuses the Archbishop of Ravenna of rebellion and orders that his eyes be put out.
    89 Gregory II 715–731 In 727 he condemns the first iconoclastic edicts (against the worship of icons) of emperor Leo III in Constantinople/Byzantium and refuses to pay the taxes due to his imperial government.
    90 Gregory III 731–741  
    91 Zachary 741–752  
    92 Stephen II 752       Died before consecration. Vatican's list omits him.
    93 Stephen III 752–757  
    94 Paul I 757–767  
Constantine (767)
Philip (767)
  95 Stephen IV 767–772 Roman-style baptism, prayers and mass receive the force of law in the Carolingian empire, including the Roman manner of chanting, administration of the sacraments, clergy dress and the wearing of sandals.
    96 Adrian I 772–795  
    97 Leo III 795–816  
    98 Stephen V 816–817  
    99 Paschal I 817–824  
    100 Eugene II 824–827  
    101 Valentine 827        
    102 Gregory IV 827–844  
John VIII (844)   103 Sergius II 844–847  
    104 Leo IV 847–855 He introduces the Asperges ceremony of sprinkling holy water over the altar and congregation at the Sunday Mass.
In France, the so-called Decretals of Isidore are forged (c.850) to 'prove' papal property rights.
Anastasius III (855)   105 Benedict III 855–858  
    106 Nicholas I 858–867 He makes use of the forged Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, knowing them to be false, to uphold papal property rights and depose Archbishop John of Ravenna. He also forces emperor Lothar to take back his divorced wife.
    107 Adrian II 867–872  
    108 John VIII 872–882  
    109 Marinus I 882–884 Mistakenly thought to be 'Martin'. hence subsequence numbering error of popes named Martin..
    110 Adrian III 884–885  
    111 Stephen VI 885–891  
    112 Formosus 891–896  
    113 Boniface VI 896        
    114 Stephen VII 896–897  
    115 Romanus 897        
    116 Theodore II 897        
    117 John IX 898–900  
    118 Benedict IV 900–903  
    119 Leo V 903        
    120 Sergius III 904–911  
    121 Anastasius III 911–913  
    122 Lando 913–914  
    123 John X 914–928  
    124 Leo VI 928        
    125 Stephen VIII 929–931  
    126 John XI 931–935  
    127 Leo VII 936–939  
    128 Stephen IX 939–942  
    129 Marinus II 942–946 Mistakenly thought to be 'Martin'. hence subsequence numbering error of popes named Martin..
    130 Agapetus II 946–955  
    131 John XII 955–963 He becomes pope at the age of 18 and leads a dissolute life that offends many (deposed by Conclave). He was said to have turned the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano into a brothel and was accused of adultery, fornication, and incest.
    132 Leo VIII 963–964  
    133 Benedict V 964        
    134 John XIII 965–972  
    135 Benedict VI 973–974  
    136 Benedict VII 974–983  
    137 John XIV 983–984  
    138 John XV 985–996  
    139 Gregory V 996–999  
The custom of a Pope changing his name upon election
originated shortly before the year 1000. (Enc.Brit.).
140 Sylvester II 999–1003 Gerbert of Aurillac is elected as the first French pope.
  Sicco 141 John XVII June–Dec.1003  
  Giovanni Fasano 142 John XVIII 1003–1009  
  Pietro Bucca Porci 143 Sergius IV 1009–1012  
Gregory VI (1012) Theophylactus II 144 Benedict VIII 1012–1024  
  Romanus 145 John XIX 1024–1032  
  Theophylactus III 146 Benedict IX* 1032–1045 Accused by Bishop Benno of Placenta of "many vile adulteries and murders." (See 1045, 1047)
  John, Bishop of Sabina 147 Sylvester III 1045     Considered by some to be an antipope
  For a second time – Theophylactus III 148 Benedict IX* 1045     Accused by Bishop Benno of Placenta of "many vile adulteries and murders."
  Johannes Gratianus 149 Gregory VI 1045–1046  
  Suidger 150 Clement II 1046–1047 He died from consuming too much lead sugar, which was used at the time as a cure for venereal disease.
It is unknown whether Clement took the lead sugar to treat a sexually transmitted disease or if he was poisoned by a third party.
  For a third time – Theophylactus III 151 Benedict IX* 1047–1048 Accused by Bishop Benno of Placenta of "many vile adulteries and murders." Pope Victor III referred to "his rapes, murders and other unspeakable acts. His life as a Pope so vile, so foul, so execrable, that I shudder to think of it."
  Poppo 152 Damasus II 1048      
  Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg 153 Leo IX 1049–1054 He imposes clerical celibacy.
  Gebhard, Count of Hirschberg 154 Victor II 1055–1057  
  Frederic de Lorraine 155 Stephen X 1057–1058  
  Gérard de Bourgogne 156 Nicholas II 1058–1061  
Honorius II (1061–1064) Anselmo Baggio 157 Alexander II 1061–1073 He insists the new Archbishops present themselves in person in Rome to receive the pallium, the symbol of their office, thus increasing the influence of the papacy.
Clement III (1080–1100) Hildebrand 160 Gregory VII 1073–1085  
  Desiderius 161 Victor III 1086–1087  
  Odo of Chatillon 162 Urban II 1088–1099 At the Synod of Melfi he enforces clerical celibacy by granting secular rulers authority to enslave the wives of clerics.
(This decree is later incorporated into the Western Church's canons).
He calls for the first Crusade against the Muslims.
Theodoric (1100–1102)
Albert (1102)
Sylvester IV (1105)
Raneiro 163 Paschal II 1099–1118  
 Gregory VIII (1118–1121) Giovanni Coniulo 164 Gelasius II 1118–1119  
  Guido, Comte de Bourgogne 165 Callistus II 1119–1124  
 Celestine II (1124) Lamberto Scannabecchi 166 Honorius II 1124–1130  
 Anacletus II (1130–1138)
Victor IV (1138)
Gregorio Papareschi 167 Innocent II 1130–1143  
  Guido di Castello 168 Celestine II 1143–1144  
  Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso 169 Lucius II 1144–1145  
  Bernardo Paganelli 170 Eugene III 1145–1153  
  Corrado della Subarra 171 Anastasius IV 1153–1154  
  Nicholas Breakspear 172 Adrian IV 1154–1159 He burns church reformer Arnolf of Brescia at the stake in Rome and has his ashes cast into the Tiber.
Victor IV (1159–1164)
Paschal III (1164–1168)
Calixtus III (1168–1178)
Innocent III (1179–1180)
Orlando Bandinelli 173 Alexander III 1159–1181  
  Ubaldo Allucingoli 174 Lucius III 1181–1185 He begins the legal fiction that heretics are merely 'deprived of the protection of the Church' so that the civil power is thus free to burn them without committing mortal sin. Although the formality of a plea for mercy is routinely made to the civil authority, any authorities who do not burn a heretic are denounced as a 'defender of heretics' and liable to the same fate.
  Uberto Crivelli 175 Urban III 1185–1187  
  Alberto di Morra 176 Gregory VIII 1187      
  Paolo Scolari 177 Clement III 1187–1191  
  Giacinto Boboni Orsini 178 Celestine III 1191–1198  
  Lothario dei Conti di Segni 179 Innocent III 1198–1216 He issues a bull declaring the English Magna Carta as 'unlawful and unjust as it is base and shameful'.
Jews are now to wear different clothing to others for easy identification, be banned from holding civil office or owning land, and are to be confined indoors during passion week.
He makes auricular confession (to a priest) compulsory for all adult Christians.
  Cencio Savelli 180 Honorius III 1216–1227  
  Ugolino dei Conti di Segni 181 Gregory IX 1227–1241  
  Goffredo Castiglione 182 Celestine IV 1241      
  Sinibaldo de Fieschi 183 Innocent IV 1243–1254  
  Rainaldo dei Conti di Segni 184 Alexander IV 1254–1261  
  Jacques Pantaléon 185 Urban IV 1261–1264  
  Guy le Gros Foulques 186 Clement IV 1265–1268  
  No Pope  interregnum 2 29 November 1268 to 1 September 1271
  Theobaldo Visconti 187 Gregory X 1271–1276  
  Pierre de Champagni 188 Innocent V 1276      
  Ottoboni dei Fieschi 189 Adrian V 1276      
  Pietro Rebuli-Giuliani 190 John XXI 1276–1277 First Portuguese pope. He dies when his ceiling collapses on him. (There was no John XX).
  Giovanni Gaetano Orsini 191 Nicholas III 1277–1280  
  Simon de Brie 192 Martin IV 1281–1285  
  Giacomo Savelli 193 Honorius IV 1285–1287  
  Girolamo Masci 194 Nicholas IV 1288–1292  
  No Pope  : interregnum 3 4 April 1292 to 5 July 1294
  Pietro di Morrone 195 Celestine V 1294      
  Benedetto Gaetani 196 Boniface VIII 1294–1303 1301: he declares "It is altogether necessary for every human being to be subject to the Roman pontiff."
  Nicholo Boccasini 197 Benedict XI 1303–1304  
  Bertrand de Got 198 Clement V 1305–1314 He decrees the exposure of the Venitians to capture and enslavement as punishment.
  No Pope  interregnum 4 20 April 1314 to 7 August 1316
  Jacques Duèse 199 John XXII 1316–1334  
Nicholas V (?) Jacques Fournier 200 Benedict XII 1334–1342  
  Pierre Roger 201 Clement VI 1342–1352  
  Étienne Aubert 202 Innocent VI 1352–1362  
  Guillaume de Grimoard 203 Urban V 1362–1370  
  Pierre Roger de Beaufort 204 Gregory XI 1370–1378 He decrees the exposure of the Florentines to capture and enslavement as punishment.
Clement VII (1378–1394) Bartolomeo Prignano 205 Urban VI 1378–1389  
Benedict XIII (1394–1423) Pietro Tomacelli 206 Boniface IX 1389–1404  
  Cosimo dei Migliorati 207 Innocent VII 1404–1406  
Alexander V (1409–1410)
John XXIII (1410–1415)
Angelo Correr 208 Gregory XII 1406–1415 He pawns the papal tiara to pay his gambling debts.
  No Pope  interregnum 5 4 July 1415 to 11 November 1417
Clement VIII (1423–1429)
Benedict XIV (1424)
Oddone Colonna 209 Martin V 1417–1431 His election effectively ends the Western Schism (13781417).
He issues instruction to Bishop Fleming of Lincoln, England, to disinter from church ground, and publicly burn at the stake as a heretic, the corpse of Rector John Wycliffe of Lutterworth (died 1384) according to the decree of the Council of Constance in 1415AD.
Felix V (1439–49) Gabriel Condulmer 210 Eugene IV 1431–1447  
208 Tommaso Parentucelli 211 Nicholas V 1447–1455  
209 Alphonso de Borgia 212 Callistus III 1455–1458  
210 Enea Silvio de Piccolomini 213 Pius II 1458–1464 He had several illegitimate children.
211 Pietro Barbo 214 Paul II 1464–1471  
212 Francesco della Rovere 215 Sixtus IV 1471–1484 He gives plenary indulgences to the Franciscan nuns of Foligno every time they confess sin.
(Machiavelli writes of him – 'He was the first [pope] who began to show how far a pope might go, and how much which was previously regarded as sinful lost its iniquity when committed by a pontiff.')
He makes seven of his nephews cardinals.
He decrees the exposure of the Venitians to capture and enslavement as punishment.

He had several illegitimate children. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel.
213 Giovanni Battista Cibo 216 Innocent VIII 1484–1492  
214 Rodrigo Borgia 217 Alexander VI 1492–1503 1493: he draws a longitudinal line between Spanish and Portuguese conquests in the West.
An extremely immoral man fathering children with many women.
215 Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini 218 Pius III 1503     He had three illegitimate daughters.
216 Giuliano della Rovere 219 Julius II 1503–1513 He decrees the exposure of the Venetians to capture and enslavement as punishment.
217 Giovanni de' Medici 220 Leo X 1513–1521  
218 Adriaan Dedel 221 Adrian VI 1522–1523 First Dutch pope; last non-Italian pope until 1978
219 Giulio de' Medici 222 Clement VII 1523–1534 He decrees the exposure of the Colonna family to capture and enslavement as punishment.
220 Alessandro Farnese 223 Paul III 1534–1549 He held off ordination in order to continue his promiscuous lifestyle, fathering four illegitimate children by his mistress. His nickname was "Cardinal Petticoat" because his sister Giulia had been Alexander VI's mistress. He made his illegitimate son Pier Luigi Farnese the first Duke of Parma.
1535: he decrees the exposure of England's king, Henry (VIII), to capture and enslavement as punishment.
1542, July 21: he establishes the Inquisition.
221 Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte 224 Julius III 1550–1555  
222 Marcello Cervini 225 Marcellus II 1555      
223 Giovanni Pietro Caraffa 226 Paul IV 1555–1559  
224 Giovanni Angelo de'Medici 227 Pius IV 1559–1565 He had several illegitimate children.
225 Michele Ghislieri 228 Pius V 1566–1572 February 25, 1570: He excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England calling her a usurper of the throne.
226 Ugo Buoncampagni 229 Gregory XIII 1572–1585 He had an illegitimate son before he took holy orders.
227 Felice Perretti 230 Sixtus V 1585–1590  
228 Giovanni Battista Castagna 231 Urban VII 1590      
229 Niccolo Sfondrati 232 Gregory XIV 1590–1591  
230 Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti 233 Innocent IX 1591      
231 Ippolito Aldobrandini 234 Clement VIII 1592–1605 The false prediction by so-called St Malachi is published that from his time to the End there will be 112 popes (that is #346).
232 Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici 235 Leo XI 1605      
233 Camillo Borghese 236 Paul V 1605–1621  
234 Alessandro Ludovisi 237 Gregory XV 1621–1623  
235 Maffeo Barberini 238 Urban VIII 1623–1644  
236 Giovanni Battista Pamphili 239 Innocent X 1644–1655  
237 Fabio Chigi 240 Alexander VII 1655–1667  
238 Giulio Rospigliosi 241 Clement IX 1667–1669  
239 Emilio Altieri 242 Clement X 1670–1676  
240 Benedetto Odescalchi 243 Innocent XI 1676–1689  
241 Pietro Vitto Ottoboni 244 Alexander VIII 1689–1691  
242 Antonio Pignatelli 245 Innocent XII 1691–1700  
243 Giovanni Francesco Albani 246 Clement XI 1700–1721  
244 Michelangelo de ’Conti 247 Innocent XIII 1721–1724  
245 Vincenzo Marco Orsini 248 Benedict XIII 1724–1730  
246 Lorenzo Corsini 249 Clement XII 1730–1740  
247 Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini 250 Benedict XIV 1740–1758  
248 Carlo della Torre Rezzonico 251 Clement XIII 1758–1769  
249 Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli 252 Clement XIV 1769–1774  
250 Giovanni Angelo Braschi 253 Pius VI 1775–1799  
251 Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti 254 Pius VII 1800–1823  
252 Annibale della Genga 255 Leo XII 1823–1829  
253 Francesco Saverio Castigliani 256 Pius VIII 1829–1830  
254 Bartolommeo Alberto Cappellari 257 Gregory XVI 1831–1846  
255 Conti Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti 258 Pius IX 1846–1878 1854: He decrees as dogma the immaculate conception of Mary (born without sin) in his bull Ineffabilis Deus.
1864: He includes "Bible societies" along with Pantheism in the Church's 'Syllabus of Errors' in an appendix to his encyclical Quanta cura.
1870: Council of Bishops (First Vatican Council) under Pope Pius IX decides that papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals is now an essential dogma of the Church.
256 Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci 259 Leo XIII 1878–1903 1885: Leo issues his encyclical, Immortale Dei, stating that freedom of thought and publication are "...the fountain-head of many evils" and that it is – "not lawful for the state hold in equal favour different kinds of religion"
1886: He beautifies Thomas More (1478–1535), heretic hunter, lay-peacher-burner, who almost certainly arranged the burning-at-the-stake of William Tyndale.
1896 He issues the bull Apostolicae Curae in which the Anglican orders (ordained priesthood) are declared "absolutely null and utterly void".
257 Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto 260 Pius X 1903–1914 He declares in support of the cuius regio, eius religio principle (that a region's religion must be the religion of its ruler).
258 Giacomo della Chiesa 261 Benedict XV 1914–1922  
259 Achille Ratti 262 Pius XI 1922–1939 1929: The Lateran Treaty is signed with dictator Mussolini, which is described by the Pope as having "given Italy back to God". Mussolini presents the pope with a car.
1935: Thomas More, the vicious heretic hunter, is canonized. (See 31 October 2000).
260 Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli 263 Pius XII 1939–1958  
261 Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli 264 John XXIII 1958–1963 Opens Second Vatican Council
He issues an instruction (prepared by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani) that sexual abuse by the Clergy is to be handled with utmost 'secrecy' under pain of 'excommunication', thereby actively suppressing investigations of the crime and repudiating the claims of its victims:
"in the most secretive way ...restrained by a perpetual silence ...and everyone [including the victim] to observe the strictest secret, which is commonly regarded as a secret of the Holy Office ...under the penalty of excommunication." (Para.11).
Should an accused priest go before a church trial – "in every way the judge is to remember that it is never right for him to bind the accused by an oath to tell the truth." (Para.52).
262 Giovanni Battista Antonio Maria Montini 265 Paul VI 1963–1978 He issues the Encyclical Humanae Vitae which reiterates the Church's opposition to artificial contraception.
263 Albino Luciani 266 John Paul I 1978      
264 Karol Józef Wojtyla 267 John Paul II 1978–2005 First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope since 1523.
He is shot on May 13, 1981, in St. Peter's Square, by Ali Agca. Agca serves a 19-year sentence in an Italian prison, and is released January 2010 from a Turkish jail where he served a 10-year sentence for killing a Turkish journalist in 1979.
October 31, 2000: He proclaims Thomas More (who held his incinerated opponents to be 'well and worthily burned') to be the patron saint of politicians.
John Paul II whipped himself with a belt, even on vacation, and slept on the floor as acts of penitence and to bring him closer to Christian perfection, according to the book "Why He's a Saint" by the Polish prelate spearheading his sainthood case, Monsignor Slawomir Oder.
265 Josef (or Joseph) Alois Ratzinger 268 Benedict XVI 2005–2013 Drafted (1943) into the German antiaircraft corps and then into the infantry, he later deserted (1945) and was briefly a prisoner of war. Reentering the seminary, he was ordained in 1951 and received a doctorate in theology from the Univ. of Munich in 1953.
He became more conservative and traditionalist after experiencing the European student uprisings of 1968 and reacting against the strong influence of Marxism at Univ. of Tübingen in the late 1960s.
266 Jorge Mario Bergoglio 269 Francis I 2013–
Previously Jesuit archbishop of Beunos Aires, Argentina.
He has been accused of past collaboration with the ruthless military Junta which had previously ruled Argentina.
His opponents within the Catholic church are opposed to his calls for the church to be more understanding towards those it considers "sinners", and in particular his intimation last year that some believers who have divorced and remarried should be able to take communion.

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