The Papal Continuity Assumed By Roman Catholicism
The papal office currently carries the titles –
'Bishop of Rome', 'Vicar of Jesus Christ', 'Successor of St. Peter', 'Prince of the Apostles', 'Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church', 'Primate of Italy', 'Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province' and 'Servant of the Servants of God'.
the pope's temporal title has been 'Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City' (the Holy See).
Developing from the office of bishop, or overseer, of the Christian church in Rome, there came over the centuries that followed a status (from its Roman imperial honour) that ascribed supernatural authority to this office which reached back to Simon Peter in order to try to validate itself.
accordingly believe that –
"The Roman Pontiff, as the successor of Peter,
is the perpetual and visible principle and foundation of unity of both the bishops and of the faithful." (LUMEN GENTIUM, 23.)
for an Anglican/Episcopalian basis of
this so-called 'Apostolic Succession'.
|: Pope :||: Reign :|
|14||Victor I||189–199||He seeks closer unity among the loose federation of provincial synods by emphasizing the leadership of Rome as capital of the Empire.|
|Hippolytus (222–235)||17||Urban I||222–230|
|20||Fabian||236–250||As layman he is ordained as bishop of Rome|
|No Pope||interregnum 1||304 – 308||Rome is without an Archbishop (chief bishop).|
|31||Eusebius||309 or 310|
|Felix II (353–365)||36||Liberius||352–366|
|Ursinus (366–367)||37||Damasus I||366–383||After the election battle for the bishopric of Rome between Damasus and Ursinus, 137 bodies are found in a church – on the site of what later becomes St Maria Maggiore (Rome).
He holds a synod which demands state intervention to ensure that western bishops are subject to the bishop of Rome, and that the bishop of Rome could not be compelled to appear in court.
He institutes a great annual ceremony in honour of Peter and Paul as giving primacy to Rome over eastern Christianity, and as continuing protectors of the imperial city. He Latinises the Mass, which had up to now be conducted in Hellenistic Greek (the language of the New Testament), and changes its simple ceremony into a lengthier and more formal one with an element of grandeur to counterbalance impressive pagan ritual. (From this the West acquired the 'kyrie', the 'sanctus', the 'gloria', and creed rituals of episcopal Christianity).
|38||Siricius||384–399||The term 'pope' begins to be used as a title of this office. He is the first pope to make celibacy compulsory for clerics.|
|40||Innocent I||401–417||He teaches that 'confirmation' is a sacrament reserved for bishops.|
|Eulalius (418–419)||42||Boniface I||418–422|
|48||Felix III (II)||483–492||He causes the first schism between Eastern and Western churches in 484 when he excommunicates Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople on the basis of the Henoticon.|
|49||Gelasius I||492–496||He asserts the supremacy of Rome against Constantinople and that the world is ruled independently by two powers; the sacred authority of the priesthood and the authority of kings.|
|52||Hormisdas||514–523||was married and widowed before ordination. He was the father of Pope Silverius|
|54||Felix IV (III)||526–530|
|Dioscurus (530)||55||Boniface II||530–532|
|64||Gregory I||590–604||He asserts the universal jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome.
He encourages monasticism, the veneration of relics, and decrees that the proper response to a sneeze is 'God Bless You'.
|Theodore II (687)||85||John VI||701–705|
|Paschal I (687–692)||86||John VII||705–707|
|88||Constantine||708–715||He accuses the Archbishop of Ravenna of rebellion and orders that his eyes be put out.|
|89||Gregory II||715–731||In 727 he condemns the first iconoclastic edicts (against the worship of icons) of emperor Leo III in Constantinople/Byzantium and refuses to pay the taxes due to his imperial government.|
|92||Stephen II||752||Died before consecration. Vatican's list omits him.|
|95||Stephen IV||767–772||Roman-style baptism, prayers and mass receive the force of law in the Carolingian empire, including the Roman manner of chanting, administration of the sacraments, clergy dress and the wearing of sandals.|
|John VIII (844)||103||Sergius II||844–847|
|104||Leo IV||847–855||He introduces the Asperges ceremony of sprinkling holy water over the altar and congregation at the Sunday Mass.
In France, the so-called Decretals of Isidore are forged (c.850) to 'prove' papal property rights.
|Anastasius III (855)||105||Benedict III||855–858|
|106||Nicholas I||858–867||He makes use of the forged Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, knowing them to be false, to uphold papal property rights and depose Archbishop John of Ravenna. He also forces emperor Lothar to take back his divorced wife.|
|109||Marinus I||882–884||Mistakenly thought to be 'Martin'. hence subsequence numbering error of popes named Martin..|
|129||Marinus II||942–946||Mistakenly thought to be 'Martin'. hence subsequence numbering error of popes named Martin..|
|131||John XII||955–963||He becomes pope at the age of 18 and leads a dissolute life that offends many (deposed by Conclave). He was said to have turned the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano into a brothel and was accused of adultery, fornication, and incest.|
|The custom of a Pope changing his name upon election
originated shortly before the year 1000. (Enc.Brit.).
|140||Sylvester II||999–1003||Gerbert of Aurillac is elected as the first French pope.|
|Giovanni Fasano||142||John XVIII||1003–1009|
|Pietro Bucca Porci||143||Sergius IV||1009–1012|
|Gregory VI (1012)||Theophylactus II||144||Benedict VIII||1012–1024|
|Theophylactus III||146||Benedict IX*||1032–1045||Accused by Bishop Benno of Placenta of "many vile adulteries and murders." (See 1045, 1047)|
|John, Bishop of Sabina||147||Sylvester III||1045||Considered by some to be an antipope|
|For a second time – Theophylactus III||148||Benedict IX*||1045||Accused by Bishop Benno of Placenta of "many vile adulteries and murders."|
|Johannes Gratianus||149||Gregory VI||1045–1046|
|Suidger||150||Clement II||1046–1047||He died from consuming too much lead sugar,
which was used at the time as a cure for venereal disease.
It is unknown whether Clement took the lead sugar to treat a sexually transmitted disease or if he was poisoned by a third party.
|For a third time – Theophylactus III||151||Benedict IX*||1047–1048||Accused by Bishop Benno of Placenta of "many vile adulteries and murders." Pope Victor III referred to "his rapes, murders and other unspeakable acts. His life as a Pope so vile, so foul, so execrable, that I shudder to think of it."|
|Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg||153||Leo IX||1049–1054||He imposes clerical celibacy.|
|Gebhard, Count of Hirschberg||154||Victor II||1055–1057|
|Frederic de Lorraine||155||Stephen X||1057–1058|
|Gérard de Bourgogne||156||Nicholas II||1058–1061|
|Honorius II (1061–1064)||Anselmo Baggio||157||Alexander II||1061–1073||He insists the new Archbishops present themselves in person in Rome to receive the pallium, the symbol of their office, thus increasing the influence of the papacy.|
|Clement III (1080–1100)||Hildebrand||160||Gregory VII||1073–1085|
|Odo of Chatillon||162||Urban II||1088–1099||At the Synod of Melfi he enforces clerical celibacy by granting secular rulers authority to enslave the wives of clerics.
(This decree is later incorporated into the Western Church's canons).
He calls for the first Crusade against the Muslims.
Sylvester IV (1105)
|Gregory VIII (1118–1121)||Giovanni Coniulo||164||Gelasius II||1118–1119|
|Guido, Comte de Bourgogne||165||Callistus II||1119–1124|
|Celestine II (1124)||Lamberto Scannabecchi||166||Honorius II||1124–1130|
| Anacletus II (1130–1138)
Victor IV (1138)
|Gregorio Papareschi||167||Innocent II||1130–1143|
|Guido di Castello||168||Celestine II||1143–1144|
|Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso||169||Lucius II||1144–1145|
|Bernardo Paganelli||170||Eugene III||1145–1153|
|Corrado della Subarra||171||Anastasius IV||1153–1154|
|Nicholas Breakspear||172||Adrian IV||1154–1159||He burns church reformer Arnolf of Brescia at the stake in Rome and has his ashes cast into the Tiber.|
|Victor IV (1159–1164)
Paschal III (1164–1168)
Calixtus III (1168–1178)
Innocent III (1179–1180)
|Orlando Bandinelli||173||Alexander III||1159–1181|
|Ubaldo Allucingoli||174||Lucius III||1181–1185||He begins the legal fiction that heretics are merely 'deprived of the protection of the Church' so that the civil power is thus free to burn them without committing mortal sin. Although the formality of a plea for mercy is routinely made to the civil authority, any authorities who do not burn a heretic are denounced as a 'defender of heretics' and liable to the same fate.|
|Uberto Crivelli||175||Urban III||1185–1187|
|Alberto di Morra||176||Gregory VIII||1187|
|Paolo Scolari||177||Clement III||1187–1191|
|Giacinto Boboni Orsini||178||Celestine III||1191–1198|
|Lothario dei Conti di Segni||179||Innocent III||1198–1216||He issues a bull declaring the English Magna Carta as 'unlawful and unjust as it is base and shameful'.
Jews are now to wear different clothing to others for easy identification, be banned from holding civil office or owning land, and are to be confined indoors during passion week.
He makes auricular confession (to a priest) compulsory for all adult Christians.
|Cencio Savelli||180||Honorius III||1216–1227|
|Ugolino dei Conti di Segni||181||Gregory IX||1227–1241|
|Goffredo Castiglione||182||Celestine IV||1241|
|Sinibaldo de Fieschi||183||Innocent IV||1243–1254|
|Rainaldo dei Conti di Segni||184||Alexander IV||1254–1261|
|Jacques Pantaléon||185||Urban IV||1261–1264|
|Guy le Gros Foulques||186||Clement IV||1265–1268|
|No Pope||interregnum 2||29 November 1268 to 1 September 1271|
|Theobaldo Visconti||187||Gregory X||1271–1276|
|Pierre de Champagni||188||Innocent V||1276|
|Ottoboni dei Fieschi||189||Adrian V||1276|
|Pietro Rebuli-Giuliani||190||John XXI||1276–1277||First Portuguese pope. He dies when his ceiling collapses on him. (There was no John XX).|
|Giovanni Gaetano Orsini||191||Nicholas III||1277–1280|
|Simon de Brie||192||Martin IV||1281–1285|
|Giacomo Savelli||193||Honorius IV||1285–1287|
|Girolamo Masci||194||Nicholas IV||1288–1292|
|No Pope||: interregnum 3||4 April 1292 to 5 July 1294|
|Pietro di Morrone||195||Celestine V||1294|
|Benedetto Gaetani||196||Boniface VIII||1294–1303||1301: he declares "It is altogether necessary for every human being to be subject to the Roman pontiff."|
|Nicholo Boccasini||197||Benedict XI||1303–1304|
|Bertrand de Got||198||Clement V||1305–1314||He decrees the exposure of the Venitians to capture and enslavement as punishment.|
|No Pope||interregnum 4||20 April 1314 to 7 August 1316|
|Jacques Duèse||199||John XXII||1316–1334|
|Nicholas V (?)||Jacques Fournier||200||Benedict XII||1334–1342|
|Pierre Roger||201||Clement VI||1342–1352|
|Étienne Aubert||202||Innocent VI||1352–1362|
|Guillaume de Grimoard||203||Urban V||1362–1370|
|Pierre Roger de Beaufort||204||Gregory XI||1370–1378||He decrees the exposure of the Florentines to capture and enslavement as punishment.|
|Clement VII (1378–1394)||Bartolomeo Prignano||205||Urban VI||1378–1389|
|Benedict XIII (1394–1423)||Pietro Tomacelli||206||Boniface IX||1389–1404|
|Cosimo dei Migliorati||207||Innocent VII||1404–1406|
|Alexander V (1409–1410)
John XXIII (1410–1415)
|Angelo Correr||208||Gregory XII||1406–1415||He pawns the papal tiara to pay his gambling debts.|
|No Pope||interregnum 5||4 July 1415 to 11 November 1417|
|Clement VIII (1423–1429)
Benedict XIV (1424)
|Oddone Colonna||209||Martin V||1417–1431||His election effectively ends the Western Schism (1378–1417).
He issues instruction to Bishop Fleming of Lincoln, England, to disinter from church ground, and publicly burn at the stake as a heretic, the corpse of Rector John Wycliffe of Lutterworth (died 1384) according to the decree of the Council of Constance in 1415AD.
|Felix V (1439–49)||Gabriel Condulmer||210||Eugene IV||1431–1447|
|208||Tommaso Parentucelli||211||Nicholas V||1447–1455|
|209||Alphonso de Borgia||212||Callistus III||1455–1458|
|210||Enea Silvio de Piccolomini||213||Pius II||1458–1464||He had several illegitimate children.|
|211||Pietro Barbo||214||Paul II||1464–1471|
|212||Francesco della Rovere||215||Sixtus IV||1471–1484||He gives plenary indulgences to the Franciscan nuns of Foligno every time they confess sin.
(Machiavelli writes of him – 'He was the first [pope] who began to show how far a pope might go, and how much which was previously regarded as sinful lost its iniquity when committed by a pontiff.')
He makes seven of his nephews cardinals.
He decrees the exposure of the Venitians to capture and enslavement as punishment.
He had several illegitimate children. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel.
|213||Giovanni Battista Cibo||216||Innocent VIII||1484–1492|
|214||Rodrigo Borgia||217||Alexander VI||1492–1503||1493: he draws a longitudinal line between Spanish and Portuguese conquests in the West.
An extremely immoral man fathering children with many women.
|215||Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini||218||Pius III||1503||He had three illegitimate daughters.|
|216||Giuliano della Rovere||219||Julius II||1503–1513||He decrees the exposure of the Venetians to capture and enslavement as punishment.|
|217||Giovanni de' Medici||220||Leo X||1513–1521|
|218||Adriaan Dedel||221||Adrian VI||1522–1523||First Dutch pope; last non-Italian pope until 1978|
|219||Giulio de' Medici||222||Clement VII||1523–1534||He decrees the exposure of the Colonna family to capture and enslavement as punishment.|
|220||Alessandro Farnese||223||Paul III||1534–1549||He held off ordination in order to continue his promiscuous lifestyle, fathering four illegitimate children by his mistress. His nickname was "Cardinal Petticoat" because his sister Giulia had been Alexander VI's mistress. He made his illegitimate son Pier Luigi Farnese the first Duke of Parma.
1535: he decrees the exposure of England's king, Henry (VIII), to capture and enslavement as punishment.
1542, July 21: he establishes the Inquisition.
|221||Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte||224||Julius III||1550–1555|
|222||Marcello Cervini||225||Marcellus II||1555|
|223||Giovanni Pietro Caraffa||226||Paul IV||1555–1559|
|224||Giovanni Angelo de'Medici||227||Pius IV||1559–1565||He had several illegitimate children.|
|225||Michele Ghislieri||228||Pius V||1566–1572||February 25, 1570: He excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England calling her a usurper of the throne.|
|226||Ugo Buoncampagni||229||Gregory XIII||1572–1585||He had an illegitimate son before he took holy orders.|
|227||Felice Perretti||230||Sixtus V||1585–1590|
|228||Giovanni Battista Castagna||231||Urban VII||1590|
|229||Niccolo Sfondrati||232||Gregory XIV||1590–1591|
|230||Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti||233||Innocent IX||1591|
|231||Ippolito Aldobrandini||234||Clement VIII||1592–1605||The false prediction by so-called St Malachi is published that from his time to the End there will be 112 popes (that is #346).|
|232||Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici||235||Leo XI||1605|
|233||Camillo Borghese||236||Paul V||1605–1621|
|234||Alessandro Ludovisi||237||Gregory XV||1621–1623|
|235||Maffeo Barberini||238||Urban VIII||1623–1644|
|236||Giovanni Battista Pamphili||239||Innocent X||1644–1655|
|237||Fabio Chigi||240||Alexander VII||1655–1667|
|238||Giulio Rospigliosi||241||Clement IX||1667–1669|
|239||Emilio Altieri||242||Clement X||1670–1676|
|240||Benedetto Odescalchi||243||Innocent XI||1676–1689|
|241||Pietro Vitto Ottoboni||244||Alexander VIII||1689–1691|
|242||Antonio Pignatelli||245||Innocent XII||1691–1700|
|243||Giovanni Francesco Albani||246||Clement XI||1700–1721|
|244||Michelangelo de ’Conti||247||Innocent XIII||1721–1724|
|245||Vincenzo Marco Orsini||248||Benedict XIII||1724–1730|
|246||Lorenzo Corsini||249||Clement XII||1730–1740|
|247||Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini||250||Benedict XIV||1740–1758|
|248||Carlo della Torre Rezzonico||251||Clement XIII||1758–1769|
|249||Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli||252||Clement XIV||1769–1774|
|250||Giovanni Angelo Braschi||253||Pius VI||1775–1799|
|251||Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti||254||Pius VII||1800–1823|
|252||Annibale della Genga||255||Leo XII||1823–1829|
|253||Francesco Saverio Castigliani||256||Pius VIII||1829–1830|
|254||Bartolommeo Alberto Cappellari||257||Gregory XVI||1831–1846|
|255||Conti Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti||258||Pius IX||1846–1878||1854: He decrees as dogma the immaculate conception of Mary (born without sin) in his bull Ineffabilis Deus.
1864: He includes "Bible societies" along with Pantheism in the Church's 'Syllabus of Errors' in an appendix to his encyclical Quanta cura.
1870: Council of Bishops (First Vatican Council) under Pope Pius IX decides that papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals is now an essential dogma of the Church.
|256||Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci||259||Leo XIII||1878–1903||1885: Leo issues his encyclical, Immortale Dei, stating that freedom of thought and publication are "...the fountain-head of many evils" and that it is – "not lawful for the state ...to hold in equal favour different kinds of religion"
1886: He beautifies Thomas More (1478–1535), heretic hunter, lay-peacher-burner, who almost certainly arranged the burning-at-the-stake of William Tyndale.
1896 He issues the bull Apostolicae Curae in which the Anglican orders (ordained priesthood) are declared "absolutely null and utterly void".
|257||Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto||260||Pius X||1903–1914||He declares in support of the cuius regio, eius religio principle (that a region's religion must be the religion of its ruler).|
|258||Giacomo della Chiesa||261||Benedict XV||1914–1922|
|259||Achille Ratti||262||Pius XI||1922–1939||1929: The Lateran Treaty is signed with dictator Mussolini, which is described by the Pope as having "given Italy back to God". Mussolini presents the pope with a car.
1935: Thomas More, the vicious heretic hunter, is canonized. (See 31 October 2000).
|260||Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli||263||Pius XII||1939–1958|
|261||Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli||264||John XXIII||1958–1963||Opens Second Vatican Council
He issues an instruction (prepared by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani) that sexual abuse by the Clergy is to be handled with utmost 'secrecy' under pain of 'excommunication', thereby actively suppressing investigations of the crime and repudiating the claims of its victims:
"in the most secretive way ...restrained by a perpetual silence ...and everyone [including the victim] ...is to observe the strictest secret, which is commonly regarded as a secret of the Holy Office ...under the penalty of excommunication." (Para.11).
Should an accused priest go before a church trial – "in every way the judge is to remember that it is never right for him to bind the accused by an oath to tell the truth." (Para.52).
|262||Giovanni Battista Antonio Maria Montini||265||Paul VI||1963–1978||He issues the Encyclical Humanae Vitae which reiterates the Church's opposition to artificial contraception.|
|263||Albino Luciani||266||John Paul I||1978|
|264||Karol Józef Wojtyla||267||John Paul II||1978–2005||First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope since 1523.
He is shot on May 13, 1981, in St. Peter's Square, by Ali Agca. Agca serves a 19-year sentence in an Italian prison, and is released January 2010 from a Turkish jail where he served a 10-year sentence for killing a Turkish journalist in 1979.
October 31, 2000: He proclaims Thomas More (who held his incinerated opponents to be 'well and worthily burned') to be the patron saint of politicians.
John Paul II whipped himself with a belt, even on vacation, and slept on the floor as acts of penitence and to bring him closer to Christian perfection, according to the book "Why He's a Saint" by the Polish prelate spearheading his sainthood case, Monsignor Slawomir Oder.
|265||Josef (or Joseph) Alois Ratzinger||268||Benedict XVI||2005–2013||Drafted (1943) into the German antiaircraft corps and then into the infantry, he later deserted (1945) and was briefly a prisoner of war. Reentering the seminary, he was ordained in 1951 and received a doctorate in theology from the Univ. of Munich in 1953.
He became more conservative and traditionalist after experiencing the European student uprisings of 1968 and reacting against the strong influence of Marxism at Univ. of Tübingen in the late 1960s.
|266||Jorge Mario Bergoglio||269||Francis I||2013–||
Previously Jesuit archbishop of Beunos Aires, Argentina.
He has been accused of past collaboration with the ruthless military Junta which had previously ruled Argentina.
His opponents within the Catholic church are opposed to his calls for the church to be more understanding towards those it considers "sinners", and in particular his intimation last year that some believers who have divorced and remarried should be able to take communion.
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